引用本文:封丽,程艳茹,封雷,张晟,刘异齐,等.三峡库区主要水域典型抗生素分布及生态风险评估[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(7):1031-1040.
FENG Li,CHENG Yanru,FENG Lei,ZHANG Sheng,LIU Yiqi,et al.Distribution of Typical Antibiotics and Ecological Risk Assessment in Main Waters of Three Gorges Reservoir Area[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(7):1031-1040.]
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三峡库区主要水域典型抗生素分布及生态风险评估
封 丽1,2, 程艳茹1, 封 雷3, 张 晟1, 刘异齐1
1.重庆市环境科学研究院, 重庆市生态环境遥感监测大数据应用协同创新中心, 重庆 401147 ;2.重庆大学材料科学与工程学院, 重庆 400044 ;3.中国科学院重庆绿色智能技术研究院大数据挖掘与应用中心(兼三峡工程生态环境在线监测中心), 重庆 400714
摘要:
为评价三峡库区主要水域典型抗生素的污染状况和生态风险,利用固相萃取-高效液相色谱-串联三重四极杆质谱联用法(SPE-HPLC-MS/MS),分析三峡库区长江干流和6条支流表层水体中6类28种抗生素的质量浓度,根据欧盟环境风险评价方法计算RQS(风险商值)及RQsum(联合风险商值),并按照Hernando等提出评级方法评价研究区域的生态风险等级. 结果表明:三峡库区7条河流共检出4类10种抗生素,质量浓度范围为0.6~218.0 ng/L,其中除OFX(氧氟沙星)和CAP(氯霉素)外,其余8种〔SDI(磺胺嘧啶)、SMX(磺胺甲唑)、SMZ(磺胺二甲嘧啶)、ERM(红霉素)、ROM(罗红霉素)、TYL(泰乐菌素)、FF(氟苯尼考)、LIN(林可霉素)〕均为畜禽药品,并且FF、LIN在我国畜禽药品中使用量排名居前五位. 7条河流抗生素RQsum由高到低依次为濑溪河>琼江>綦江>碧溪河>嘉陵江>长江>乌江,其中,濑溪河RQsum高达5.532,SMX、ERM和OFX均为高风险,说明其对濑溪河水体中相应的水生生物表现出较高的毒性风险;琼江、綦江、碧溪河和嘉陵江的RQsum均处于1~2之间,表现出较高生态风险,但4条河流检出抗生素的单个RQS均小于1,处于低风险;长江的RQsum为0.605,检出抗生素中TYL、ERM和ROM处于中风险,其余为低风险;乌江的RQsum为0.013,检出抗生素均处于低风险,说明水体受人类活动干扰最小. 研究显示,三峡库区主要水域中抗生素含量略低于其他水域,但应进一步强化对畜禽养殖行业抗生素使用的监管,开展畜禽粪污还田技术规范中抗生素含量限制的相关研究.
关键词:  抗生素  地表水  污染特征  生态风险评估  三峡库区
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:重庆市基础科研项目(2015cstc-jbky-01607)
Distribution of Typical Antibiotics and Ecological Risk Assessment in Main Waters of Three Gorges Reservoir Area
FENG Li1,2, CHENG Yanru1, FENG Lei3, ZHANG Sheng1, LIU Yiqi1
1.Chongqing Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Chongqing Collaborative Innovation Center of Big Data Application in Eco-Environmental Remote Sensing, Chongqing 401147, China ;2.College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China ;3.Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Online Monitoring Center of Ecological and Environmental of the Three Gorges Project, Chongqing 400714, China
Abstract:
Abstract: The mass concentrations of 28 kinds of antibiotics (6 types) from the stem streams and 6 tributaries of the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area were investigated by solid phase extraction, high performance liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS). The ecological risks were assessed by the rating method proposed by Hernando and according to the EU environmental risk assessment method to calculate the risk quotient value (RQS) and joint risk quotient value (RQsum). The results indicated that 10 antibiotics were detected from drugs for livestock and poultry with a mass concentration range of 0.6-218 ng/L, except ofloxacin (OFX) and chloramphenicol (CAP). The detected antibiotics included sulfadiazine (SDI), sulfamethoxazole(SMX),sulfamethazine(SMZ),erythromycin (ERM), roxithromycin (ROM), tylosin (TYL), florfenicol (FF) and lincomycin (LIN). Among them, FF and LIN are ranked in the top five livestock and poultry drugs used in China. Moreover, the RQsum exhibited an interesting finding:Laixi River > Qiongjiang River > Qijiang River > Bixi River > Jialing River > Yangtze River > Wujiang River. RQsum value in Laixi River reached up to 5.5, indicating higher risk of toxicity to aquatic organisms from three kinds of antibiotics SMX, ERM and OFX. In contrast, RQsum in Qiongjiang River, Qijiang River, Bixi River and Jialing River were in the range of 1 to 2 with relatively high risk, but the individual RQS in each of the four rivers was less than 1, implying low risk. In addition, RQsum value of the Yangtze River was 0.605; the risk status of antibiotics TYL, ERM and ROM were in the middle level, and the risk status of other antibiotics risk were at a low level. Interestingly, RQsum of Wujiang River was 0.013, and the detected antibiotics were at low risk, indicating that the water body had minimum interference by human activities. Although the contents of antibiotics in major water basins around the Three Gorges Reservoir were slightly lower than those in other rivers, the antibiotics are used in great doses in the livestock and poultry breeding industry. Therefore, regulations should be strengthened and more studies should be conducted on limiting the amount of livestock and poultry feces that is returned to the fields.
Key words:  antibiotics  surface water  pollution characteristics  ecological risk assessment  Three Gorges Reservoir