引用本文:张远,夏瑞,张孟衡,景朝霞,赵茜,范俊韬,等.水利工程背景下河流水华暴发成因分析及模拟研究[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(8):1163-1173.
ZHANG Yuan,XIA Rui,ZHANG Mengheng,JING Zhaoxia,ZHAO Qian,FAN Juntao,et al.Research Progress on Cause Analysis and Modeling of River Algal Blooms under Background of Mega Water Projects[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(8):1163-1173.]
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水利工程背景下河流水华暴发成因分析及模拟研究
张 远1,2,3, 夏 瑞1,2,3, 张孟衡4, 景朝霞5, 赵 茜1,2, 范俊韬1,2,3
1.北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875 ;2.中国环境科学研究院流域水生态保护技术研究室, 北京 100012 ;3.中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012 ;4.中国环境科学研究院国际合作中心, 北京 100012 ;5.武汉大学, 水资源与水利水电工程科学国家重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430072
摘要:
研究发现,河流水华暴发的主要驱动因素除受过量营养盐摄入、气候变化导致的气温上升和降雨等限制外,水文情势的影响尤为显著. 在高强度人类活动影响下,水利工程开发导致的水文情势改变是否为河流水华加剧的成因之一,是水与环境学科交叉研究亟待探索的一个重要应用基础问题. 通过对近10年来国内外在水利工程背景下河流水华暴发成因研究进展的综述,辨识了河流水华发生的“水循环-水环境-水生态”相互作用关系;对考虑水文变化的河流水华预测统计学模型、智能算法和水质水量耦合机理模型等进行了回顾和总结,并提出了基于水循环物理过程联系的生物及生物地球化学过程、社会经济用水与管理人文过程等与河流水华发生相互作用与反馈的水系统论研究体系. 当前我国水利工程调水影响区下的河流水华问题研究仍面临着一些难点和挑战:①过去关于水利工程调水对河流中下游水生态的影响研究多数是基于情景假设和规划条件下的预断,随着近年来我国多个大型水利工程的正式实施运行,当前以实际工程调水为背景(如南水北调、引江济汉工程等)开展水华模拟的研究成果仍然十分有限;②水利工程调水影响区下的河流水华发生机理尚不明确,当前多数藻类生长模型并没有将流域水循环过程影响纳入考虑因素,对河流生态水文过程作用机理与耦合及定量关系分析方面的研究相对匮乏;③现阶段水利工程背景下的河流水华问题研究多停留在定性分析和宏观定量阶段,缺乏基于以水系统理论为导向的水生态系统与河流水文情势共同作用机制的定量化研究.
关键词:  水利工程  河流  变化环境  水华  成因分析  水循环
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41571050)
Research Progress on Cause Analysis and Modeling of River Algal Blooms under Background of Mega Water Projects
ZHANG Yuan2,3, XIA Rui1,2,3, ZHANG Mengheng4, JING Zhaoxia5, ZHAO Qian1,2, FAN Juntao1,2,3
1.College of Water Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China ;2.Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China ;3.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China ;4.International Cooperation Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China ;5.State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
Abstract:
Abstract: Besides excessive input of nutrients, temperature increase and rainfall, change of hydrological regime is regarded as a key driving factor that may cause river algal blooms. However, there is a considerable uncertainty on whether the change of hydrological regime caused by water projects aggravates water blooms in the downstream of river systems. This review collects the existing international and domestic literature from the last ten years in regards to river algal blooms under the background of mega water projects, proposes a relationship among ‘hydrology-water quality-water ecology’, and proposes future research directions on river water blooms under the impact of water projects. The present study is expected to give theoretical support to address sustainability strategies on regulation of water resources projects. There are still some difficulties and challenges in dealing with river algal blooms under impacts of water projects:(1) The previous researches are mainly based on planned conditions of water transfer projects, so river algal bloom simulations in the actual water transfer conditions are still very limited. (2) The mechanisms of river algal blooms are still not clear, so most current algae models have not considered the effect of water cycle. (3) Most researches on river algae are basically only at qualitative stage; there is lack of quantitative analysis between water ecosystem and water cycle according to water system theory.
Key words:  water project  river  changing environment  algal bloom  cause analysis  water cycle