引用本文:赵晓亮,孙杰,李俊华,吕雪,薛杨,淑敏,毕文艺,等.阜新城区降尘重金属污染及其健康风险评价[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(9):1346-1354.
ZHAO Xiaoliang,SUN Jie,LI Junhua,LÜ Xue,XUE Yang,SHU Min,BI Wenyi,et al.Pollution Evaluation and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Deposition in Fuxin City[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(9):1346-1354.]
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阜新城区降尘重金属污染及其健康风险评价
赵晓亮1,3, 孙 杰1, 李俊华2, 吕 雪1, 薛 杨1, 淑 敏1, 毕文艺1
1.辽宁工程技术大学环境科学与工程学院, 辽宁 阜新 123000 ;2.清华大学环境学院, 北京 100084 ;3.辽宁省煤炭资源安全开采与洁净利用工程研究中心, 辽宁 阜新 123000
摘要:
为研究阜新市大气降尘重金属分布情况及可能存在的健康风险,于2015年3月—2016年3月对阜新城区(32个采样点)及周边地区(13个对照采样点)进行大气降尘湿法采集,并利用电感耦合等离子体质谱仪(ICP-MS)对降尘中的7种重金属元素(Cr、Ni、Zn、Cd、Pb、As、Cu)含量进行测定. 结果表明:①阜新市大气降尘中重金属含量存在明显差异,表现为w(Zn)>w(Pb)>w(Cr)>w(Cu)>w(Ni)>w(As)>w(Cd). w(Zn)平均值最高,为756.9 mg/kg;w(Cd)平均值最低,为4.8 mg/kg,其他几种重金属含量范围为10~120 mg/kg. ②城区大气降尘中Cd的背景比值(H)最高,为44.89,其次为Zn(H=11.92),城区大气降尘重金属污染受人为活动影响显著. ③地累积指数评价结果显示,Cd为严重-极度污染,Zn为中度-严重污染,Pb、Cu为中度污染,Cr、Ni为轻度污染,As为无污染. ④研究区健康风险评价表明,儿童通过3种暴露途径接触Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd、Ni的非致癌健康风险水平均高于成人,Cr、As的非致癌健康风险水平低于成人. ⑤Cr经呼吸途径对成人的非致癌风险(HQinh)达2.53,非致癌风险总值(HI)达3.41,均大于限值(1), 表明Cr经呼吸途径对于成人存在非致癌风险,其余6种重金属元素经呼吸途径对于成人的非致癌风险相对较低. ⑥Cd、Cr、As、Ni经呼吸途径的致癌风险值(10-9~10-7)均低于可接受水平(10-6),表明致癌元素Cd、Cr、As、Ni经呼吸途径对人体可能不具有致癌风险. 鉴于研究区大气降尘重金属元素经3种途径对成人、儿童均构成一定非致癌风险,阜新市应当及时加强对海州露天矿、经济开发区及皮革工业园等主要大气颗粒物污染源的排放及监测管控.
关键词:  大气降尘  重金属  地累积指数  暴露  健康风险评价
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基金项目:辽宁省煤炭资源安全开采与洁净利用工程研究中心开放基金资助课题(LNTU15KF13);辽宁省教育厅科研项目(LJYL020);国家级大学生创新训练项目(201610147000053)
Pollution Evaluation and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Deposition in Fuxin City
ZHAO Xiaoliang1,3, SUN Jie1, LI Junhua2, LÜ Xue1, XUE Yang1, SHU Min1, BI Wenyi1
1.Environmental Science and Engineering Department, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000, China ;2.School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China ;3.Research Center of Coal Resources Safe Mining and Clean Utilization of Liaoning, Fuxin 123000, China
Abstract:
Abstract: In order to investigate the contents of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition in Fuxin City and evaluate the health risks posed to local residents, 32 samples of atmospheric deposition from the urban area and 13 samples from the suburban area were collected from March 2015 to February 2016. The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, As and Cu) were determined using ICP-MS. The results indicated that:(1) The concentrations of the heavy metals differed significantly, in the order of w(Zn)>w(Pb)>w(Cr)>w(Cu)>w(Ni)>w(As)>w(Cd). The w(Zn) in the atmospheric deposition was the highest (756.9 mg/kg), w(Cd) was the lowest (4.8 mg/kg), while those of Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni and As were between 10-120 mg/kg. (2) The ratio of content from atmospheric deposition in the urban area to that of the background values (H) was the highest for Cd (44.89), while that of Zn was 11.92, which suggested that human activities greatly impacted the contamination of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition. (3) The assessment results of geo-accumulation index indicated that the Cd pollution in the atmospheric deposition should be classified as extreme, that of Pb and Cu as between slight and extreme, that of Cr and Ni as slight, while that of As as practically uncontaminated. (4) The result of health risk assessment indicated that the non-cancer risks of five heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni) were higher for children than for adults, while the risks of Cr and As were higher for adults than for children. (5) The cancer risk (HQinh) of Cr for adults was 2.53, while the total non-cancer hazard index (HI) was 3.41; this was much higher than the threshold value (1). The results suggest that Cr has a non-carcinogenic risk for adults through respiratory pathway. (6) The carcinogen risks of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, As, Ni) were 10-9-10-7, which were less than threshold values (10-6), indicating that the risks of heavy metal from atmospheric deposition was within the human toleration limit. Cd, Cr, As and Ni might not present carcinogenic risks to the human body through the respiratory pathway. According to non-carcinogenic risk posed by heavy metals in air dust to children and adults through three pathways, Fuxin should promptly strengthen the emission and control of major particulate sources such as the Haizhou open pit, the economic development zone and the leather industrial park.
Key words:  atmospheric deposition  heavy metal  geo-accumulation index  exposure  health risk assessment