引用本文:王群艳,隋方功,李俊良,梁斌,等.日光温室夏季休闲期间的土壤管理对可溶性氮的影响[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(9):1390-1397.
WANG Qunyan,SUI Fanggong,LI Junliang,LIANG Bin,et al.Effects of Soil Management on Soluble Nitrogen in a Sunlit Greenhouse during the Summer Fallow[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(9):1390-1397.]
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日光温室夏季休闲期间的土壤管理对可溶性氮的影响
王群艳1, 隋方功1, 李俊良1,2, 梁 斌1,2
1.青岛农业大学资源与环境学院, 山东 青岛 266109 ;2.山东省水肥一体化工程技术研究中心, 山东 青岛 266109
摘要:
日光温室夏季休闲期间大水漫灌和高温闷棚是普遍的土壤处理措施,该过程灌水多、温度高,对氮素循环影响大. 为了探明休闲期间土壤管理对氮素保持与损失的影响,通过田间试验揭示夏季休闲期间大水漫灌、高温闷棚对不同灌溉施肥模式(滴灌、漫灌)和不同有机物料还田处理(单施有机肥、有机肥配施小麦秸秆、有机肥配施玉米秸秆)土壤可溶性氮的影响. 结果表明:作物收获后,滴灌和漫灌各处理平均w(矿质氮)分别为103.9和68.6 mg/kg,大水漫灌使滴灌0~30 cm土层w(矿质氮)显著降低30%,漫灌w(矿质氮)变化不大. 日光温室夏季休闲期w(SON)(SON为可溶性有机氮)为16.3~69.1 mg/kg,SON相对含量为15%~48%. 大水漫灌使滴灌和漫灌w(SON)分别显著增加2.9和2.5倍;高温闷棚使滴灌和漫灌w(SON)显著降低107.1和72.4 kg/hm2,降幅分别为41%和34%,同时w(矿质氮)分别显著增加117.9和126.7 kg/hm2,土壤氮素矿化速率分别为1.7和1.8 mg/(kg·d). 与单施有机肥相比,长期有机肥配施玉米或小麦秸秆可显著增加滴灌w(矿质氮),但对w(SON)无影响. 综上,休闲期间的土壤管理对土壤表层氮素含量的影响较大,其中大水漫灌容易造成滴灌残留氮素的大量损失,而随后的高温闷棚加速了SON的矿化.
关键词:  可溶性氮(SON)  秸秆还田  滴灌  漫灌
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31270382);山东省2015年度农业重大应用技术创新项目
Effects of Soil Management on Soluble Nitrogen in a Sunlit Greenhouse during the Summer Fallow
WANG Qunyan1, SUI Fanggong1, LI Junliang1,2, LIANG Bin1,2
1.School of Resource and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China ;2.Shandong Engineering Research Center for Integrated Management of Water and Fertilizer, Qingdao 266109, China
Abstract:
Abstract: Closing a high-temperature plastic greenhouse after flood irrigation is widely used as an effective method of soil sterilization during summer fallow, and it may affect the nitrogen (N) cycle in the soil. The goal of this study was to reveal the effects of soil sterilization measures on soil mineral N and soluble organic N (SON) after different long-term applications of organic materials, based on drip and flood irrigation modes. The results showed that the mineral N content during summer fallow was 103.9 and 68.6 mg/kg under drip and flood irrigation modes, respectively. The flood irrigation before closing the plastic greenhouse significantly decreased the mineral nitrogen content of the soil by 30% under drip irrigation mode, but had no effect on mineral nitrogen under flood irrigation mode. The soluble organic N content of the soil during summer fallow ranged from 16.3-69.1 mg/kg and accounted for 15%-48% of the total soluble nitrogen. Flood irrigation increased the soluble organic N by factors of 2.9 and 2.5 under drip and flood irrigation modes, respectively. After the high-temperature plastic greenhouse was closed, soluble organic N significantly declined by 107.1 kg/hm2 (41%) and 72.4 kg/hm2 (34%), mineral N increased by 117.9 and 126.7 kg/hm2, and the net mineralization rate of soil nitrogen was 1.7 and 1.8 mg/(kg·d) under the drip and flood irrigation fertilization modes, respectively. Compared with a single application of chicken manure, the combined application of chicken manure with maize or wheat straw significantly increased the mineral N under the drip fertilization mode; however, the method had no effect on mineral N under the flood fertilizer mode. In general, flood irrigation before closing the plastic greenhouse led to considerable mineral N loss under the drip irrigation mode, and closing the high-temperature greenhouse accelerated the mineralization of SON.
Key words:  soluble nitrogen  straw  drip irrigation  flooding irrigation