引用本文:姜霞,王书航,张晴波,王雯雯,等.污染底泥环保疏浚工程的理念·应用条件·关键问题[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(10):1497-1504.
JIANG Xia,WANG Shuhang,ZHANG Qingbo,WANG Wenwen,et al.Analysis of Concepts, Conditions and Critical Problems in Environmental Dredging[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(10):1497-1504.]
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污染底泥环保疏浚工程的理念·应用条件·关键问题
姜霞1
1. 中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012;2. 中交疏浚技术装备国家工程研究中心有限公司, 上海 201208;3. 北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875
摘要:
污染底泥是水体最主要的内源,存在污染物二次释放的风险,而环保疏浚可以有效地清除污染底泥、降低内源污染负荷及其释放风险,因此近年来该技术在水环境治理中得到广泛的应用.环保疏浚的主要目的是有效清除河流、湖泊(水库)水体污染底泥中累积的污染物,并对浚后污泥进行安全处理处置,为污染河流、湖泊(水库)水质改善与生态修复发挥工程作用.作为湖泊、河流水污染综合治理技术体系的重要组成部分,环保疏浚是生态环境工程技术之一,也是湖泊河流水污染治理的重要手段;但底泥疏浚同时也存在疏浚效果不理想、可能造成原位扰动与异地污染、改变水生态系统的结构与功能等生态风险.研究显示,未来环保疏浚的主要发展方向应包括:①基于调查评估基础上的污染底泥分区、分类环保疏浚及处理处置研究;②污染底泥环保疏浚与区域生态修复一体化设计研究;③污染底泥环保疏浚-浚后干化-处理处置-资源化集成技术研究;④污染底泥环保疏浚、处理和资源化全过程监管评估技术研究.
关键词:  内源  环保疏浚  生态修复  底泥处理处置  资源化  全过程评估
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.02.83
分类号:
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2017ZX07206-003)
Analysis of Concepts, Conditions and Critical Problems in Environmental Dredging
JIANG Xia1
1. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;
2. CCCC National Engineering Research Center of Dredging Technology and Equipment Co. Ltd., Shanghai 201208, China;
3. College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Abstract:
Contaminated sediment is one of the main internal sources of pollution in water, and has potential secondary release risks. Environmental dredging is highly efficient for sediment removal to reduce the internal source pollution load and release risk, and has been widely used in water environment protection in recent years. The primary purpose of environmental dredging is to effectively clean all kinds of pollutants accumulated in sediments, and to safely treat the dredged sediments. Dredging projects play a role in water quality improvement and ecological restoration of rivers and lakes (reservoirs). As an important part of the water pollution comprehensive treatment technology system of lakes and rivers, environmental dredging is one of the ecological environment engineering technologies, and is also an important means of water pollution governance. However, ecological risks (e.g. unsatisfactory dredging results, field disturbance and allopatric pollution, changes in the results and functions of water ecosystems) also exist for environmental dredging. The future study directions of environmental dredging should contain:(1) Study on the partition and classification of polluted sediment dredging and the disposal of dredged sediment based on investigation and assessment of sediment; (2) Study on the integrated design of sediment environmental dredging and regional-ecological restoration; (3) Study on the integrated technology of sediment environmental dredging:dehydration-disposal-resource utilization; (4) Study on the technology of the whole-process supervision and evaluation of environmental dredging, disposal and resource utilization of contaminated sediment.
Key words:  internal sources  sediment environmental dredging  ecological restoration  sediment disposal  resource utilization  whole-process evaluation