引用本文:张慧,郑志志,马鑫鹏,杨欢,章桂芳,路中,乐容潮,等.哈尔滨市土壤表层重金属污染特征及来源辨析[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(10):1597-1606.
ZHANG Hui,ZHENG Zhizhi,MA Xinpeng,YANG Huan,ZHANG Guifang,LU Zhong,YUE Rongchao,et al.Sources and Pollution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Surface Soils of Harbin City[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(10):1597-1606.]
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哈尔滨市土壤表层重金属污染特征及来源辨析
张 慧1, 郑志志1, 马鑫鹏1, 杨 欢1, 章桂芳2, 路 中1, 乐容潮1
1.东北农业大学资源与环境学院, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150030 ;2.中山大学地球科学与工程学院, 广东 广州 510275
摘要:
鉴于确定土壤重金属来源是降低土壤重金属人为输入和控制土壤重金属面源污染扩散的必然要求,以哈尔滨市9个市辖区中4个主要老城区(道里区、道外区、南岗区、香坊区)为研究区,依据标准格网进行土壤样本采集(表层土壤样本307个,深层土壤样本77个),分析土壤中w(As)、w(Hg)、w(Cd)、w(Cr)、w(Cu)、w(Ni)、w(Pb)、w(Zn);并利用主成分分析法、地累积指数法和指示克里格插值法,分别对该区不同成土母质区域表层土壤重金属的污染特征和来源进行分析.结果表明:①哈尔滨市四区表层土壤中As、Cr、Cu、Ni、Pb、Zn主要来源于成土母质,Hg和Cd受人类活动的影响显著.②以各类成土母质中重金属含量平均值为评价依据,哈尔滨市表层土壤中Hg、Cd表现出较大范围的重金属污染,依据土壤样本所在格网覆盖范围,污染范围分别占研究区的60%、65%.③Cu、Pb、Zn污染范围小且污染程度低.研究显示,人口集聚、工业发展、交通发达等因素已经造成研究区表层土壤中Hg、Cd、Cu、Pb、Zn不同程度、不同范围的污染,需要合理有效地处理生活垃圾、控制工业和交通排放,以缓解表层土壤重金属污染.
关键词:  哈尔滨市  重金属  污染  来源
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.02.81
分类号:
基金项目:黑龙江省博士后基金项目(LBH-Z12032);国家自然科学基金项目(41402297)
Sources and Pollution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Surface Soils of Harbin City
ZHANG Hui1, ZHENG Zhizhi1, MA Xinpeng1, YANG Huan1, ZHANG Guifang2, LU Zhong1, YUE Rongchao1
1.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China ;2.School of Earth Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
Abstract:
The source determination of heavy metals in soil is necessary to reduce the anthropogenic input and control the diffusion of heavy metals in soil. Four districts of Harbin City were selected as the study area, and were divided into 4 km-by-4 km grids and 2 km-by-2 km grids, respectively. In total, 77 deep soil samples and 307 surface soil samples for each gird were collected and analyzed for concentrations of As, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Principal component analysis, geo-accumulation index and Kriging interpolation were used to analyze the pollution characteristics and sources of heavy metals in the surface soils with different parent materials. The results showed that:(1) As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were mainly derived from the parent material, and Hg and Cd were significantly affected by human activities. (2) Hg and Cd in the surface soils showed a wide area pollution of heavy metals according to the mean values of heavy metals in parent materials, with the pollution area being 60% for Hg and 65% for Cd. (3) The pollution areas of Cu, Zn and Pb were smaller, and the population magnitudes were lower compared to As, Hg, Cd, Cr and Ni. The study suggests that population accumulation, industry and traffic development have resulted in pollution of Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn with different range and magnitude in the surface soils of the study area. Therefore, reasonable and effective efforts for household garbage industry and traffic emissions should be adopted to alleviate the pollution from heavy metals.
Key words:  Harbin  heavy metals  pollution  sources