引用本文:黎土煜,余大立,张洪申.基于GREET的纯电动公交车与传统公交车全生命周期评估[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(10):1653-1660.
LI Tuyu,YU Dali,ZHANG Hongshen.Using the GREET Model to Assess the Life Cycle of Electric and Conventional Buses[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(10):1653-1660.]
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基于GREET的纯电动公交车与传统公交车全生命周期评估
黎土煜, 余大立, 张洪申
昆明理工大学机电工程学院, 云南 昆明 650500
摘要:
随着纯电动公交车在城市公共交通中应用越来越广泛,需要对纯电动公交车和传统柴油公交车进行全生命周期评估,并分析推广纯电动公交的可行性.通过美国阿贡实验室开发的GREET(greenhouse gases,regulated emissions,and energy use in transportation model)软件,充分考虑油井-油泵、公交车运行、车身系统制造、液体系统制造、ADR(装配、报废和回收质量)以及电池制造等6个阶段能耗,结合公交车车型信息和路况信息,构建公交模型,并对公交模型进行能耗模拟、排放物模拟和经济效益评估.结果表明,若车身长度为12 m,车身质量为18 t时,纯电动公交车运行过程能耗仅占其总能耗的31.1%.相较于传统公交车,纯电动公交车全生命周期能耗减少29.1%,全生命周期内VOC、CO、NOx等污染物排放量分别减少8.7%、36.7%、50.2%,温室气体CO2的排放量减少19.7%.若公交车队规模为20辆,纯电动公交车使用年限为8 a,则纯电动公交车比例需超过12.7%才能实现盈利,单辆纯电动公交车若实现盈利至少需要3 a.
关键词:  全生命周期评估  GREET模型  传统柴油公交  纯电动公交
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.02.96
分类号:
基金项目:云南省级人才培养项目(KKSY201501060)
Using the GREET Model to Assess the Life Cycle of Electric and Conventional Buses
LI Tuyu, YU Dali, ZHANG Hongshen
Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China
Abstract:
With the gradual scarcity of global energy resources and rising requirements for the environment, it is necessary to develop clean energy and alternative vehicles. Electric buses have become widely available in city public transportation in recent years. The life cycle assessment of conventional diesel and electric buses was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of electric buses. A bus model incorporating consumption of stages of well-to-pump, operation, system manufacture, fluid manufacture, Assembly, Disposal and Recycling (ADR), battery manufacture and the survey information of buses and traffic was established. The bus length was 12 m and the weight was 18 t. Based on the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model (GREET) software developed by Argonne National Laboratory, a simulation was conducted. The results showed that the life cycle energy consumption of electric buses was 29.1% lower than conventional buses. This means that electric buses can reduce the energy consumption to a certain extent, and the energy consumption tends to decrease significantly with the improvement of energy structure and power technology in China. The operational energy consumption of electric buses accounted for 31.1% of total energy consumption. Compared to conventional buses, the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), CO and NOx emissions over the life cycle of electric buses were lower by 8.7%, 36.7% and 50.2%, and the emissions of CO2 of electric buses were lower by 19.7%. If a bus fleet has 20 buses, the fleet can make a profit when the proportion of electric buses exceeds 12.7%, because the life span of an electric bus is eight years in general. However, the popularization of electric buses requires a lot of investment to purchase new buses and build infrastructure. Electric buses cannot make a profit for at least for three years, which means that the enterprises barely make any profit in a short time. Therefore, an incentive system should be set up by the government in order to expand the market of electric buses and address the financial stress of the bus companies. With the development of operational information of electric buses, more research will be conducted to accurately calculate the appropriate proportion of electric bus in different areas.
Key words:  life cycle assessment  GREET model  conventional diesel bus  electric bus