引用本文:陈超,陈紫光,吴玉琴,魏绅,王平,等.关于渗透通风条件建筑结构对室内PM2.5浓度水平影响评价模型探讨[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(11):1761-1768.
CHEN Chao,CHEN Ziguang,WU Yuqin,WEI Shen,WANG Ping,et al.Modeling the Influence of Building Structure on Indoor PM2.5 Mass Concentration due to Infiltration[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(11):1761-1768.]
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关于渗透通风条件建筑结构对室内PM2.5浓度水平影响评价模型探讨
陈超1, 陈紫光1, 吴玉琴1, 魏绅2, 王平3
1. 北京工业大学建筑工程学院, 绿色建筑环境与节能技术北京市重点实验室, 北京 100124;2. 诺森比亚大学机械与建筑工程学院, 纽卡斯尔 NE18ST;3. 北京市市政工程设计研究总院有限公司, 北京 100082
摘要:
我国京津冀地区近年频遭大气PM2.5污染侵扰,相关研究表明,既使关闭建筑外窗,大气中PM2.5仍可以通过渗透通风方式进入室内污染环境.为定量评价建筑渗透通风及无室内污染源条件下建筑结构(如外窗缝隙结构、房间建筑结构等)对室内ρ(PM2.5)的影响规律,基于北京市东城区、朝阳区6个不同建筑结构的房间室内外ρ(PM2.5)实时监测数据,重点比较分析了建筑结构对室内外ρ(PM2.5)关联特性的影响规律.此外,根据颗粒物穿透特性及沉降特性机理,提出了反映建筑外窗缝隙结构(如缝高、缝深)的无量纲特征参数AP与反映房间建筑结构(如层高、开间、进深)的无量纲特征参数Ak.在前期提出的室内ρ(PM2.5)预测模型基础上,进一步构建了二者(APAk)对室内ρ(PM2.5)影响的评价模型,并通过实测数据验证了模型的正确性.结果表明:当室外PM2.5污染程度与气象条件一定时,建筑结构对I/O[室内外ρ(PM2.5)之比]影响较大,其范围在0.4~0.7之间;随着建筑外窗气密性等级的提高,对应室内ρ(PM2.5)呈显著的下降趋势.建筑外窗缝隙结构对室内ρ(PM2.5)影响程度远大于房间建筑结构,敏感性分析结果表明,当建筑外窗缝高每降低50%或缝深每提高50%,对应室内ρ(PM2.5)约可下降33.6%与31.9%.研究显示,气密性等级较高的建筑外窗缝隙缝高往往较小、缝深较长,渗透通风条件下对控制室内ρ(PM2.5)水平作用更显著。
关键词:  PM2.5污染  建筑外窗缝隙通风特性  外窗缝隙结构特征  房间建筑结构特征  评价模型
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.03.17
分类号:X51
基金项目:国家"十三五"科技支撑计划项目(2I004020201604);国家自然科学基金项目(51378024);北京市自然科学基金项目(8162006)
Modeling the Influence of Building Structure on Indoor PM2.5 Mass Concentration due to Infiltration
CHEN Chao1, CHEN Ziguang1, WU Yuqin1, WEI Shen2, WANG Ping3
1. Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Built Environment and Energy Efficient Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100024, China;2. Mechanical and Construction Engineering, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE18 ST, the United Kingdom;3. Beijing General Municipal Engineering Design & Research Institute Co., Ltd., Beijing 100082, China
Abstract:
Fine particulate matter, generally known as PM2.5, has great impact on air quality and human health. Although closing external windows can help prevent outdoor PM2.5 form going indoors, many studies have shown that a significant number of particles can still pass through the building façade through the cracks around the window. In order to quantify the influence of external window crack characteristic and relevant parameters (such as room dimension) on the indoor ρ(PM2.5), a longitudinal study monitoring outdoor ρ(PM2.5), indoor ρ(PM2.5) and important outdoor meteorological parameters was carried out in six offices located in the Dongcheng and Chaoyang District in Beijing, China. In addition, a model was developed from an existing model developed by the authors, based on two-month field-measured data from five unoccupied offices located in the central area of Beijing, and was then validated against a new dataset measured at another sampling site. In this model, a comprehensive structure characteristic coefficient, AP, was adopted to reflect the influence of external window crack structure and room dimension. Further, this study adopted a method that can be used to calculate the value of Ak based on the building's external window crack structure and room dimension, which are easier to be obtained. The model is capable of quantifying indoor ρ(PM2.5) based on instant outdoor ρ(PM2.5), with consideration of impact from external window crack characteristics, room dimension and outdoor meteorological conditions, i.e. outdoor wind speed and relative humidity. The model was validated by measurement data. The prediction results showed that under the same outdoor conditions, such as ρ(PM2.5) and temperature, indoor air quality for ρ(PM2.5)was significantly affected by external window crack structure. The I/O ratio[the ratio between indoor ρ(PM2.5) and outdoor ρ(PM2.5)] was generally within 0.4 and 0.7. Additionally, when increasing the window crack height by 50% or the window crack depth by 50%, the corresponding I/O could be decreased by 33.6% and 31.9% respectively. The study shows that narrower window crack height and deeper window crack depth with higher window air-tightness can control indoor ρ(PM2.5) well under the condition of infiltration.
Key words:  PM2.5 pollution  infiltration  external window crack structure  room dimension  evaluation model