引用本文:王露,毕晓辉,刘保双,吴建会,张裕芬,冯银厂,张勤勋,等.菏泽市PM2.5源方向解析研究[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(12):1849-1858.
WANG Lu,BI Xiaohui,LIU Baoshuang,WU Jianhui,ZHANG Yufen,FENG Yinchang,ZHANG Qinxun,et al.Source Directional Apportionment of PM2.5 in Heze City[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(12):1849-1858.]
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菏泽市PM2.5源方向解析研究
王露1, 毕晓辉1, 刘保双1, 吴建会1, 张裕芬1, 冯银厂1, 张勤勋2
1. 南开大学环境科学与工程学院, 国家环境保护城市空气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室, 天津 300350;2. 菏泽市环境监测中心站, 山东 菏泽 274000
摘要:
为了定量解析环境受体中不同方向PM2.5的源贡献水平,利用“源方向解析”(source directional apportionment,SDA)法〔综合PMF(positive matrix factorization,正定矩阵因子)方法和后向轨迹模型〕对京津冀大气污染传输通道上某典型城市——菏泽市环境受体中PM2.5进行来源解析,并分析不同方向的源贡献.结果表明,菏泽市环境受体中ρ(PM2.5)变化范围为42.73~191.72 μg/m3,平均值为92.54 μg/m3.SO42-、NO3-和NH4+是菏泽市环境受体中PM2.5的主要化学组分;ρ(SO42-)、ρ(NO3-)和ρ(NH4+)的平均值分别为29.78、22.11和7.91 μg/m3,三者之和占ρ(PM2.5)的63.54%.PMF的计算结果显示,二次无机盐、机动车排放、扬尘、煤烟尘和建筑水泥尘是菏泽市环境受体中PM2.5的贡献源类,分担率分别为32.61%、22.60%、19.54%、16.25%和9.00%.利用后向轨迹模型识别出PM2.5贡献源类的4个潜在方向,分别为东南、正西、西北和正东.二次无机盐在4个方向的贡献分别为8.49%、5.01%、6.65%和12.88%;机动车排放分别为1.39%、4.44%、7.47%和8.22%;扬尘分别为4.95%、3.65%、4.12%和6.92%;煤烟尘分别为4.56%、1.93%、2.16%和7.28%;建筑水泥尘分别为2.22%、1.88%、1.27%和3.56%.研究显示,菏泽市PM2.5污染较为严重,其中二次源、机动车和扬尘源是其主要贡献源类,并且来自菏泽市东部的各源类贡献均较高.
关键词:  PM2.5  PMF  轨迹聚类分析  源方向解析(SDA)
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.03.14
分类号:X823
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0208500);国家自然科学基金项目(21407081);天津市应用基础与前沿技术研究计划项目(13JCQNJC08300)
Source Directional Apportionment of PM2.5 in Heze City
WANG Lu1, BI Xiaohui1, LIU Baoshuang1, WU Jianhui1, ZHANG Yufen1, FENG Yinchang1, ZHANG Qinxun2
1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China;2. Heze Environmental Monitoring Center Station, Heze 274000, China
Abstract:
To quantify contributions from each source-category derived from various directions, ambient PM2.5 data were collected from Heze City, which is a typical city in the Jing-Jin-Ji atmospheric pollution transport channel. The data were analyzed by a method called ‘source directional apportionment’ (SDA), combining the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model and backward trajectories cluster analysis. The results showed that the ρ(PM2.5) varied in the range of 42.73-191.72 μg/m3, with an average concentration of 92.54 μg/m3. SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were major compositions of PM2.5 in Heze City. The average values of ρ(SO42-), ρ(NO3-) and ρ(NH4+) were 29.78, 22.11 and 7.91 μg/m3, respectively. The sum of three compositions accounted for 63.54% of the total ρ(PM2.5). The results of the PMF model indicated that secondary sources (32.61%), vehicle exhaust(22.60%), fugitive dust (19.54%), coal combustion (16.25%) and construction dust (9.00%) were the primary contributors to PM2.5 in Heze City. Four potential source-directions were identified by using backward trajectory analysis during the sampling period. The percentages of source directional contributions from the directions 1 to 4 (southeast, west, northwest and east) were estimated as follows:secondary sources (8.49%, 5.01%, 6.65% and 12.88%, respectively), vehicle exhaust (1.39%, 4.44%, 7.47% and 8.22%, respectively), fugitive dust (4.95%, 3.65%, 4.12% and 6.92%, respectively), coal combustion (4.56%, 1.93%, 2.16% and 7.28%, respectively) and construction dust (2.22%, 1.88%, 1.27% and 3.56%, respectively). The study suggested that PM2.5 pollution is serious in Heze City, and that secondary sources, vehicle exhaust and fugitive dust were the major contributors to the air pollution. In addition, all the sources from east of Heze City presented relatively high contributions.
Key words:  PM2.5  positive matrix factorization (PMF)  backward trajectories cluster analysis  source directional apportionment (SDA)