引用本文:谢明辉,白璐,阮久莉,乔琦,江乐勇,等.以晶体硅太阳能电池产业为例的产业生命周期评价初探[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(12):1970-1978.
XIE Minghui,BAI Lu,RUN Jiuli,QIAO Qi,JIANG Leyong,et al.Exploratory Research on Industrial Life Cycle Assessment Illustrated by Case Study of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cell Industry[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(12):1970-1978.]
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以晶体硅太阳能电池产业为例的产业生命周期评价初探
谢明辉1, 白璐1, 阮久莉1, 乔琦1, 江乐勇2
1. 中国环境科学研究院, 国家环境保护生态工业重点实验室, 北京 100012;2. 康达国际环保有限公司, 北京 100028
摘要:
面对日益复杂的环境问题和精细化环境管理需求,为了将生命周期评价在产业结构调整、发展方式转变中更好地发挥作用,对在产业层面开展生命周期评价的方法进行了探索研究.产业生命周期评价是在产品生命周期评价的基础上增加了:①基于“可拆解可组合”生态设计理念的功能单位和系统边界确定;②质量评估和数据整合的数据收集过程;③以不确定性分析来验证数据的合理性.选择晶体硅太阳能电池产业进行了产业生命周期评价的案例应用.结果表明:晶体硅太阳能电池产业可分为4个产品单元和11个工艺单元.基于上述产品单元和工艺单元的资源能源投入和污染物排放数据进行收集,在数据质量评估之后通过数据整合形成了产业生命周期数据清单.产业生命周期环境影响主要集中在呼吸系统影响(41.94%)、化石燃料(25.20%)、致癌(14.89%)和气候变化(8.80%)4个环境影响类别;减少环境影响的精准化途径是减少高纯多晶硅、硅片、电池片产品的电耗,组件产品中焊带消耗,硅片产品中的砂浆消耗和组件产品的铝合金边框消耗.蒙特卡洛分析结果显示,高纯多晶硅生命周期评价结果不确定性较高,与数据质量评估的结果较为一致.案例应用结果说明,产品生命周期评价可将生命周期评价从产品层面提升到产业层面,可为国家产业发展提供科学支撑.
关键词:  产业  生命周期评价  数据收集  晶体硅太阳能电池  环境影响
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.03.45
分类号:X820.3
基金项目:国家环境保护公益性行业科研专项(201209056)
Exploratory Research on Industrial Life Cycle Assessment Illustrated by Case Study of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cell Industry
XIE Minghui1, BAI Lu1, RUN Jiuli1, QIAO Qi1, JIANG Leyong2
1. Key Laboratory of Eco-Industry of Ministry of Environmental Protection, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;2. Kangda Intl. Environmental Co., Ltd., Beijing 100028, China
Abstract:
With rising complexity of environmental concerns and increasingly refined environmental management requirements, there are growing needs to conduct life cycle assessments for upgrading the industrial structure and shifting the economic development mode. The industrial life cycle assessment (ILCA) based on product life cycle assessment was conducted and supplemented with the following contents:(1) The function unit and system boundary were defined as one single product or process unit as far as possible based on ‘disassembly and combination’ approach;(2) Data collection included data accuracy assessment and integration into an industry-level database;(3) Data accuracy was verified by uncertainty analysis. The crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell industry was taken as a case study. The results showed that the crystalline silicon photovoltaic industry was separated into four production units and eleven technique units. The data of mass and energy inputs and environmental emissions were collected based on the above production and technique units. After data accuracy assessment, a data inventory of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell industry was obtained from data integration. The life cycle environmental impacts of the crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell industry main came from respiratory system impacts (41.94%), fossil fuels (25.20%), carcinogens (14.89%) and climate change (8.80%) categories. Raw material reduction and energy savings were the primary pathways to decreasing the environmental impacts, especially decreasing electricity consumption in solar-grade silicon, wafer and cell production;solder in panel production;silicon carbide in wafer production;and aluminum alloy in panel production. Uncertainty analysis using a Monte-Carlo simulation revealed that the highest uncertainty was in solar-grade silicon production;this finding was in accordance with the results of data accuracy assessment in data collection. These case application results showed that ILCA can improve LCA from product-level to industry-level, which can provide scientific information for policy-making for the development of national industry.
Key words:  industrial  life cycle assessment  data collection  crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell  environmental impacts