引用本文:秦延文,赵艳民,马迎群,郑丙辉,汪星,王丽婧,李虹,等.三峡水库氮磷污染防治政策建议:生态补偿·污染控制·质量考核[J].环境科学研究,2018,31(1):1-8.
QIN Yanwen,ZHAO Yanmin,MA Yingqun,ZHENG Binghui,WANG Xing,WANG Lijing,LI Hong,et al.Prevention and Control of Nitrogen, Phosphorus Pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir: Ecological Compensation, Pollution Control, Quality Assessment[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2018,31(1):1-8.]
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三峡水库氮磷污染防治政策建议:生态补偿·污染控制·质量考核
秦延文1, 赵艳民1, 马迎群1, 郑丙辉2, 汪星2,3, 王丽婧2,3, 李虹2,3
1. 中国环境科学研究院, 国家环境保护河口与海岸带环境重点实验室, 北京 100012;2. 中国环境科学研究院, 湖泊水污染治理与生态修复技术国家工程实验室, 北京 100012;3. 中国环境科学研究院, 国家环境保护饮用水水源地保护重点实验室, 北京 100012
摘要:
三峡水库是我国重要战略水资源库.三峡水库蓄水后,库区富营养化问题日益凸显,TN、TP成为影响库区水质的主要污染因子,其中80%~85%入库氮、磷污染负荷来自流域上游.受长江富含营养物质水质输入和流域内人类活动面源输入等共同影响,长江中下游超过80%的湖泊发生富营养化,长江口及其毗邻海域赤潮频发.因此,三峡库区及上游流域仅实施国家统一的COD和氨氮水污染物目标总量控制已不能满足流域水环境安全要求.为保障三峡水库、长江中下游湖泊和东海海域环境安全,支撑长江经济带可持续发展,应按照湖泊保护的要求,进一步深化三峡库区及上游流域氮、磷污染控制与治理.新安江是我国第一个跨省流域水质补偿试点,2010-2013年,为加强新安江水污染防治,提高流域生态环境保护水平,中央财政、浙江、安徽两省共拨付资金12.7×108元,试点工作启动后,新安江跨界断面连续3 a水质均符合补偿协议要求,ρ(CODMn)、ρ(氨氮)和ρ(TP)均下降,水质恶化趋势得到有效控制.借鉴新安江流域水质补偿试点实施的成功经验,就"十三五"期间继续深化三峡库区及上游流域水污染防治问题,提出以下建议:①国家、下游和上游省(市)政府三方共同出资,建立长江流域水质补偿专项资金;②科学制订三峡水库水污染防治规划,强化三峡库区及上游流域氮、磷污染负荷控制;③建立并实施长江流域跨行政区水环境质量考核制度.
关键词:  生态补偿  三峡库区  水污染防治  政策建议
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.04.14
分类号:X524
基金项目:国家重点研究发计划项目(2016YFA0600904);中国科学院科技服务网络计划(STS)项目(KFJ-EW-STS-010)
Prevention and Control of Nitrogen, Phosphorus Pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir: Ecological Compensation, Pollution Control, Quality Assessment
QIN Yanwen1, ZHAO Yanmin1, MA Yingqun1, ZHENG Binghui2, WANG Xing2,3, WANG Lijing2,3, LI Hong2,3
1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Environment, Water Research Institute, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;2. National Engineering Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;3. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Source Protection, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
The Three Gorges Reservoir is an important strategic water resources project in China. After the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, eutrophication in the Three Gorges Reservoir area become prominent. The total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) have become main pollution factors affecting water quality in the reservoir. 80% to 85% of the TN and TP comes from the upper reaches. Due to the influence of nutrients water input from the Yangtze River and non-point source pollution by human activities, more than 80% of lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin have been eutrophicated, the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent sea areas have been frequently attacked by red tide. The implementation of target total content control of COD and NH4-N in the Three Gorges Reservoir and the upper reaches areas could not meet the requirements of water environment safety management. In order to assure the environmental safety of the Yangtze River and the East China Sea, as well as support the sustainable development of the economic belt in the Yangtze River, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution control and treatment should be further deepened in accordance with the requirements of lake protection. Water quality compensation in Xin'anjiang River Basin is the first pilot of water quality compensation for inter provincial river in China. During the period from 2010-2013,1.27 billion yuan funds supportes by national financial,Zhejiang and Anhui provinces was used to control water pollution and protect ecological environment in Xin'anjiang River Basin. Since the project initiation, water quality of the examined cross-section have met the requirements of the compensation agreement in three consecutive years. Concentrations of CODMn, NH4+-N and TP were all decreased, indicating the water quality deterioration has been well controlled. Based on the successful experience of water quality compensation in Xin'anjiang River Basin, policy suggestion about water pollution control in the Three Gorges Reservoir and the upper reaches was proposed as follows: (1) Special fund for water quality compensation should be established with funds from the state, the provinces in the upstream and downstream of the Yangtze River Basin. (2) Prevention and control of nitrogen and phosphorus should be strengthened by scientific plan of water pollution prevention and control in the Three Gorges Reservoir. (3) Cross regional water quality assessment system should be established and implemented in the Yangtze River Basin.
Key words:  ecological compensation  the Three Gorges Reservoir  water pollution prevention and control  policy suggestion