引用本文:蔡佳,王丽婧,陈建湘,田泽斌,汪星,黄代中,刘德富,等.西洞庭湖入湖河流磷的污染特征[J].环境科学研究,2018,31(1):70-78.
CAI Jia,WANG Lijing,CHEN Jianxiang,TIAN Zebin,WANG Xing,HUANG Daizhong,LIU Defu,et al.Characteristics of Phosphorus Pollution in Rivers Entering the West Dongting Lake[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2018,31(1):70-78.]
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西洞庭湖入湖河流磷的污染特征
蔡佳1,2, 王丽婧2, 陈建湘3, 田泽斌2,4, 汪星2, 黄代中5, 刘德富1
1. 三峡大学水利与环境学院, 湖北 宜昌 443002;2. 中国环境科学研究院, 国家环境保护洞庭湖科学观测研究站, 北京 100012;3. 长江中游水文水资源勘测局, 湖北 武汉 430012;4. 北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875;5. 洞庭湖生态环境监测中心, 湖南 岳阳 414000
摘要:
为识别西洞庭湖长江三口分流来水与洞庭湖水系河流来水磷元素的污染特征,于2016年1-12月在西洞庭湖的主要入湖河流松滋河(三口分流河道)、沅江和澧水(洞庭湖水系河流)开展了水文水质同步调查,研究了入湖河流中磷浓度和组成的时空分布特征,剖析了水文因素对磷污染特征的影响,探究了磷的来源结构.结果表明,3条主要入湖河流流量平均值表现为沅江(1 718 m3/s) >松滋河(935 m3/s) >澧水(884 m3/s),ρ(TP)平均值表现为沅江(0.070 mg/L) <澧水(0.077 mg/L) <松滋河(0.138 mg/L);沅江的年均入湖磷通量(4 177.26 t/a)对于西洞庭湖磷污染而言仍起主导作用;沅江、澧水与松滋河的磷的形态以DTP(溶解态磷,占比为78.56%~90.19%)为主,并且松滋河DTP占比(90.19%)显著高于沅江和澧水(78.56%~83.34%).进一步的分析显示,3条河流的磷污染状况受水文因素影响显著,沅江和澧水磷浓度表现为汛期高于非汛期,磷的主要来源为非点源;松滋河的磷浓度表现为非汛期高于汛期,汛期主要取决于长江来水状况,非汛期主要取决于松滋口以下区间的点源污染状况.研究显示,3条河流磷浓度和形态均具有时空差异性,并且年内变化规律差异较大.
关键词:  西洞庭湖  入湖河流    形态组成  时空分布
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.03.05
分类号:X522
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51609225);国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)项目(2012CB417004)
Characteristics of Phosphorus Pollution in Rivers Entering the West Dongting Lake
CAI Jia1,2, WANG Lijing2, CHEN Jianxiang3, TIAN Zebin2,4, WANG Xing2, HUANG Daizhong5, LIU Defu1
1. College of Hydroelectric and Environmental Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, China;2. State Environmental Protection Scientific Observation Station of the Dongting Lake, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;3. Middle Yangtze River Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources Survey, CWRC, Wuhan 430012, China;4. College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;5. Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Center of Dongting Lake of Hunan, Yueyang 414000, China
Abstract:
In order to explore the pollution characteristics of phosphorus between upstream runoffs from the Yangtze River and the Dongting Lake Basin input to the West Dongting Lake, simultaneous survey of hydrological and water quality parameters was carried out during 2016 in the three main into-lake rivers including the Songzi River (the typical river connected with the Yangtze River through three water inlets), the Yuanjiang River and the Lishui River(main rivers in the Dongting Lake Basin).The spatial-temporal variation of the phosphorus concentration and forms were analyzed, and the influence of hydrological factors and the source of phosphorus pollution were discussed about the three main into-lake rivers. The results show that the average river rate flow of the three rivers is ranked as Yuanjiang River(1718 m3/s) > Songzi River (935 m3/s) > Lishui River (884 m3/s). Instead, the total phosphorus concentration is ranked as Yuanjiang River (0.070 mg/L) < Lishui River (0.077 mg/L) < Songzi River (0.138 mg/L). Although compared with the previous annual mean value(0.103 mg/L, 2014-2015), the total phosphorus concentration (0.070 mg/L) of the Yuanjiang River decreased, its annual mean flux of phosphorus (4177.26 t/a) still plays a leading role in phosphorus pollution of the West Dongting Lake. The phosphorus of the three main into-lake rivers is mainly composed of dissolved total phosphorus (DTP, 78.56%-90.19%). The DTP proportion (90.19%) of the Songzi River, on behalf of the distributary channels from the Yangtze River, is obviously higher than that of the rivers in the Dongting Lake Basin, namely the Yuanjiang River and Lishui River (78.56%-83.34%). In the light of further discussion, it is found that the phosphorus pollution of the three main into-lake rivers is significantly affected by hydrological factors, the total phosphorus concentrations of the Yuanjiang River and Lishui River in flood season are higher than that in dry season which means that the phosphorus pollutant primarily comes from non-point source pollution. Taking note of a higher phosphorus concentration in dry season, it turns out that the phosphorus pollution of the Songzi River in flood season mainly depends on the diverted flow from the Yangtze River with relatively less pollutants, and in dry season primarily affected by the point source pollution along the Songzi River from the water inlet to the entrance of the lake.
Key words:  the West Dongting Lake  into-lake river  phosphorus  forms  spatial and temporal variation