引用本文:张瑞环,钟茂生,姜林,张丹,郑瑞,吴杨,付全凯,等.基于DED模型的挥发性有机物健康风险评价[J].环境科学研究,2018,31(1):170-178.
ZHANG Ruihuan,ZHONG Maosheng,JIANG Lin,ZHANG Dan,ZHENG Rui,WU Yang,FU Quankai,et al.Health Risk Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds based on DED Model[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2018,31(1):170-178.]
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基于DED模型的挥发性有机物健康风险评价
张瑞环1,2,3, 钟茂生1,2,3, 姜林1,2,3, 张丹1,2,3, 郑瑞1,2,3,4, 吴杨1,2,3,4, 付全凯1,2,3
1. 北京市环境保护科学研究院, 北京 100037;2. 国家城市环境污染控制工程技术研究中心, 北京 100037;3. 污染场地风险模拟与修复北京市重点实验室, 北京 100037;4. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048
摘要:
为评估DED(Dual Equilibrium Desorption,双元平衡解吸)模型用于预测实际场地VOCs呼吸暴露健康风险的适用性,以邯郸某化工搬迁场地中危化品存储车间场地为案例,采用DED模型分别计算了二氯甲烷和苯在埋深1.5m(浅层)和3.5m(深层)处的呼吸暴露健康风险,并与基于相应深度实测土壤气中污染物浓度及采用传统J&E(Johnson and Ettinger)模型预测的呼吸暴露健康风险进行了比较验证.结果表明:①采用DED模型预测的二氯甲烷健康风险均未超过10-6,在某些点位及深度(2号点浅层、6号点浅层及深层、5号点深层)苯的健康风险超过了10-6.②基于实测土壤气中污染物浓度计算的健康风险显示,二氯甲烷健康风险均未超过10-6,在某些点位及深度(4号和6号点浅层和深层及2号点深层)苯的健康风险超过了10-6.③采用J&E模型预测的二氯甲烷和苯的健康风险均超过10-6.④对比发现,对于二氯甲烷DED模型预测的风险结果与基于土壤气实测污染物浓度预测的结果总体无明显差异,但苯在部分点位前者预测结果低于后者.研究显示,DED模型基本上能适用于预测实际场地VOCs呼吸暴露健康风险,但在某些点位可能会低估实际风险,建议具体使用过程中进一步采集场地数据进行验证,而J&E模型的预测结果均过于保守;同时,对DED模型各参数进行敏感性分析发现,土壤中土壤气体积含量、污染物浓度和有机碳含量对风险结果影响相对明显,土壤容重则几乎没有影响.
关键词:  VOCs  土壤气  呼吸暴露  健康风险
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.03.64
分类号:X825
基金项目:环境保护部公益项目(201509034);北京市自然科学基金项目(8164055);北京市科技专项创新环境与平台建设项目(Z161100005016022)
Health Risk Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds based on DED Model
ZHANG Ruihuan1,2,3, ZHONG Maosheng1,2,3, JIANG Lin1,2,3, ZHANG Dan1,2,3, ZHENG Rui1,2,3,4, WU Yang1,2,3,4, FU Quankai1,2,3
1. Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100037, China;2. National Engineering Research Centre of Urban Environmental Pollution Control, Beijing 100037, China;3. Beijing Key Laboratory for Risk Modeling and Remediation of Contaminated Sites, Beijing 100037, China;4. College of Environment and Tourism of Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
Abstract:
Vapor inhalation risks of dichloromethane and benzene at the depth of 1.5 and 3.5 m in a hazardous material storage warehouse site were estimated using dual phase equilibrium (DED) model, and the results were compared with those calculated based on measured vapor concentration and traditional Johnson and Ettinger model (J & E model), in order to evaluate the applicability of the DED model for estimating the actual health risks of VOCs in sites. The results reveal that the incremental carcinogenic risks of dichloromethane in all sampling locations were below the acceptable level (10-6), while only in four sampling points the risk of benzene were above 10-6,which fit well with the results calculated based on the measured vapor concentration. However, the results calculated by the J & E model indicate that the risks of these two concerned contaminants were both above the acceptable level. Furthermore, the risks calculated by the J & E model were 4-5 orders of magnitude higher than those calculated based on measured vapor concentration for dichloromethane while 1-4 orders of magnitude higher for benzene. The results calculated by the J & E model show a high level of conservative property. Risks in some points predicted by the DED model are orders of magnitude lower than risks predicted based on the measured vapor concentration for benzene, which indicates the DED model may results in underestimated results in process of the health risk accessment sometimes. Meanwhile, a sensitivity analysis was conducted for the parameters used in the DED model. The result shows that all soil gas porosity, concentrations of VOCs in soil, and organic carbon content have an evident impact to the risk. To the contrary, soil bulk density has few impacts to the derived risk. Therefore, systematic comparison studies should be carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using the DED model to calculate the vapor intrusion risk with the ultimate aim to reduce the conservatism of the J & E model used currently.
Key words:  VOCs  soil gas  breathing exposure  health risk