引用本文:张伟,姬亚芹,李树立,王士宝,张蕾,等.天津市春季道路降尘PM2.5和PM10中碳组分特征[J].环境科学研究,2018,31(2):239-244.
ZHANG Wei,JI Yaqin,LI Shuli,WANG Shibao,ZHANG Lei,et al.Characteristics of Carbon Fractions in PM2.5 and PM10 of Road Dust Fall during Spring in Tianjin City[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2018,31(2):239-244.]
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天津市春季道路降尘PM2.5和PM10中碳组分特征
张伟, 姬亚芹, 李树立, 王士宝, 张蕾
南开大学环境科学与工程学院, 天津 300350
摘要:
为研究天津市春季道路降尘PM2.5和PM10中碳组分特征,丰富道路降尘的成分谱库,于2015年3月22日-5月23日在天津市主干道、次干道、支路、快速路和环线5种道路类型道路两侧采集道路降尘样品,通过再悬浮装置得到PM2.5和PM10的滤膜样品,并用热光碳分析仪测定PM2.5和PM10中OC(有机碳)和EC(元素碳)的百分含量,利用两相关样本非参数检验、OC/EC比值法以及相关分析法,定性分析天津市春季道路降尘PM2.5和PM10的碳组分的特征及其主要来源;利用因子分析法,进一步分析道路降尘PM2.5和PM10的主要来源.结果表明:道路降尘PM2.5w(OC)为10.27%(主干道)~13.94%(快速路)、w(EC)为1.24%(支路)~1.77%(环线),PM10w(OC)为8.48%(主干道)~12.56%(快速路)、w(EC)为1.01%(次干道)~1.59%(快速路),可见快速路中碳组分含量相对较高,这可能与其车流量较大,导致道路扬尘和机动车尾气排放量较大有关,也可能与其路面保养及保洁状况有关.对于大部分碳组分而言,其在PM2.5中的百分含量均高于PM10;除EC2,其他碳组分在PM2.5和PM10间均无显著性差异.不同道路类型PM2.5和PM10中OC/EC的大小顺序基本相同,与其车质量变化趋势相反.道路降尘中PM2.5中碳组分主要来源于道路扬尘、机动车尾气、生物质燃烧以及燃煤源的混合源,PM10主要受道路扬尘、燃煤和柴油车尾气等污染源的影响.
关键词:  道路降尘  PM2.5  PM10  碳组分  来源解析
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.03.49
分类号:X513
基金项目:国家环境保护公益性行业科研专项(No.201409004)
Characteristics of Carbon Fractions in PM2.5 and PM10 of Road Dust Fall during Spring in Tianjin City
ZHANG Wei, JI Yaqin, LI Shuli, WANG Shibao, ZHANG Lei
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China
Abstract:
To study the characteristics of carbon fractions in PM2.5 and PM10 of road dust fall and enrich its source profile, road dust fall samples were collected in five types of roads from March 22nd to May 23rd, 2015 in Tianjin City. NK-ZXF was employed to obtain PM2.5 and PM10 samples, and Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer (IMPROVE-TOR) was employed to measure the concentrations of the OC and EC in PM2.5 and PM10. The sources of carbonaceous aerosol were investigated by analyzing the characteristics of OC and EC, ratio and correlation method, and statistical method. The sources were further obtained with the factor analysis method. The results showed that the concentrations of OC in the five types of PM2.5 and PM10 of road dust fall were 10.27% (major arterials) -13.94% (expressway), and the concentrations of EC were 1.24% (branch roads) -1.77% (loop line); the concentrations of OC in PM10 were 8.48% (major arterials)-12.56% (expressway), and the concentrations of EC were 1.01% (minor arterials) -1.59% (expressway); the carbon fractions of expressway was more than others, which might relate to its traffic volumes and maintenance of road surface. The percentage of carbon fractions in PM2.5 was higher than those in PM10. There was no significant difference of the same carbon fraction between the two sizes, except EC2. The orders of OC/EC for five types of roads were similar in PM2.5 and PM10, which were opposite to the car weights on the roads. The results showed that the road dust, vehicle exhaust, coal combustion and biomass burning contributed to OC and EC in road dust fall PM2.5, and the road dust, coal combustion and diesel exhaust were the main contributors to OC and EC in PM10 of road dust fall during spring in Tianjin City.
Key words:  road dust fall  PM2.5  PM10  carbon fractions  source apportionment