引用本文:李嗣新.蓄水对水库下游食物网中汞生物累积影响研究进展[J].环境科学研究,2018,31(8):1346-1356.
LI Sixin.A Review on the Studies Related to the Impact of Impoundment on Mercury Bioaccumulation in Food Web Downstream from Reservoir[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2018,31(8):1346-1356.]
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蓄水对水库下游食物网中汞生物累积影响研究进展
李嗣新
水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所, 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430000
摘要:
1991年,加拿大学者Verdon首次报道了加拿大拉格朗德二级水库下游鱼体中汞含量显著高于水库库区的现象,发现水库下游是新建水库汞输出的重要场所,因此水库下游鱼类汞升高的风险继水库本身后成为新的关注热点.通过对相关野外研究的回顾,表明蓄水对水库下游食物网的鱼类、浮游生物以及水体中汞的富集产生影响,水生食物网中各组分甲基汞含量和比例随着营养级的升高而增加.蓄水加速了水库的甲基化过程,使水库自身成为巨大的汞源,不仅影响水库自身食物网中汞的分布,而且更加剧烈地影响水库下游食物网中汞的分布.水库既向下游直接输送溶解态和悬浮颗粒态的甲基汞,又向下游输送丰富的、可被杂食性鱼类和动物直接利用和吸食的甲基汞食物源.在下游食物网中,甲基汞有可能通过微型浮游生物网(悬浮颗粒物-浮游植物-浮游动物经典食物链),或者通过杂食性鱼类主动摄食来自水库直接输送的浮游动物,或者通过杂食性鱼类被动吸食来自水库直接输送的悬浮颗粒物富集途径,向位于更高营养级位置的鱼类进行传递.在我国,水库蓄水对下游汞输送机制以及对下游微型、底层食物网中生物累积和迁移转化的影响需要更加深入的定量研究.
关键词:    新建水库下游  食物网  生物累积  蓄水
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2018.04.07
分类号:X131.2
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No.51779158,51509169)
A Review on the Studies Related to the Impact of Impoundment on Mercury Bioaccumulation in Food Web Downstream from Reservoir
LI Sixin
Key Laboratory of Ecological Impacts of Hydraulic-Projects and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystem of Ministry of Water Resources, Institute of Hydroecology, Ministry of Water Resources & Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430000, China
Abstract:
In 1991, the Canadian researcher Verdon firstly reported higher mercury concentrations in fish in the downstream than those in Canada's La Grande 2 Reservoir, and found downstream is an important place exported mercury from newly constructed reservoir. The risk of increased mercury levels in fish in the downstream became a new focused hotspot after reservoir itself. On the basis of the review of related field studies, it is suggested that impoundment impacts mercury accumulation in fish, plankton and water in food web of downstream from reservoir. Methylmercury and its proportion increase with trophic level in the components of aquatic food web. Impoundment accelerates methylation process in reservoir, makes reservoir a huge source of mercury, and impacts mercury distribution in food web of downstream more than reservoir itself. On the one hand, dissolved and suspended particulate methylmercury are directly exported from reservoir to downstream. Large amounts of methylmercury food sources directly taken up or passively fed by fish are exported from reservoir to downstream. Methylmercury in food web of downstream may be transferred to fish at higher trophic positions, through pelagic food web (traditional food chain from suspended particulate matter, phytoplankton to zooplankton) or omnivorous fish actively fed with zooplankton or passively fed with suspended particulate matter directly exported by reservoir. In China, there is a need for more quantitative research on the impact of reservoir impoundment on downstream mercury exportation mechanisms, bioaccumulation and migration in pelagic and benthic food web.
Key words:  mercury  downstream from newly constructed reservoirs  food web  bioaccumulation  impoundment