引用本文:左锐,陈敏华,李仙波,等.基于“生态水位-水质-水源地”协同作用的地下水环境风险评价方法研究[J].环境科学研究,2019,32(8):1275-1283.
ZUO Rui,CHEN Minhua,LI Xianbo,et al.Environmental Risk Assessment of Groundwater based on Comprehensive Effects of ‘Ecological Groundwater Level-Quality-Source Area’[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2019,32(8):1275-1283.]
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基于“生态水位-水质-水源地”协同作用的地下水环境风险评价方法研究
左锐1,2, 陈敏华1,2, 李仙波2,3, 薛镇坤1,2, 王膑1,2, 滕彦国1,2, 王金生1,2
1. 北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875;2. 地下水污染控制与修复教育部工程研究中心, 北京 100875;3. 北京师范大学经济与工商管理学院, 北京 100875
摘要:
地下水生态水位、地下水水质和地下水水源地是地下水环境的关键敏感属性,而现有关于地下水环境保护的研究多侧重于污染风险评价,常忽视地下水生态水位作为环境要素综合风险的重要性.为突破以往地下水风险评价中以污染要素为主的现状,在区域尺度针对地下水污染及地下水水位变化导致地下水系统生态服务功能失衡等问题,提出以地下水生态水位、地下水水质和地下水水源地作为风险受体,综合研究地下水系统对地下水风险源的暴露途径及响应关系,采用地下水防污性能指数指征地下水环境的空间差异性,构建了基于“生态水位-水质-水源地”协同作用的GERRM模型(地下水环境相对风险模型,groundwater environmental relative risk model),定量描述地下水污染和地下水水位突变耦合的地下水环境风险,并将建立的方法在下辽河平原进行案例研究.结果表明:①Ⅳ、Ⅴ级风险区主要位于化工企业、危险废物填埋场周围一定范围区域及沈阳市地下水水源地保护区和生态水位敏感性较高区,面积为2 107.33 km2,占总面积的8.93%.②Ⅰ、Ⅱ级风险区主要为农田种植区、林地种植区和农业城镇建设区,面积为17 704.51 km2,占总面积的75.01%.研究显示,GERRM模型适用于区域地下水环境风险评价,下辽河平原区化工企业、危废填埋场周围一定范围区域以及沈阳地下水水源地保护区相对风险最高,需采取相应的管理保护措施.
关键词:  地下水生态水位  地下水水质  地下水水源地  环境风险  评价方法
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.01.19
分类号:X523
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No.41672228);国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项课题(No.2014ZX07201-010)
Environmental Risk Assessment of Groundwater based on Comprehensive Effects of ‘Ecological Groundwater Level-Quality-Source Area’
ZUO Rui1,2, CHEN Minhua1,2, LI Xianbo2,3, XUE Zhenkun1,2, WANG Bin1,2, TENG Yanguo1,2, WANG Jinsheng1,2
1. College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;2. Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875, China;3. School of Economics and Business Administration, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Abstract:
Groundwater ecological water level, groundwater quality and groundwater source area are the key sensitive attributes of groundwater environments. However, the existing research regarding groundwater protection focuses on pollution risk assessment, while the importance of groundwater ecological water level as an environmental factor is often ignored. Therefore, in order to improve the current groundwater risk assessment which usually mainly considered pollution factors, at the regional scale, it was proposed that groundwater be considered using the ecological groundwater level, groundwater quality and groundwater source area as the risk receptors because of the potential environmental risks to the ecosystem service functions of groundwater systems, such as groundwater pollution and changes in groundwater level. A comprehensive study of the exposure and response of groundwater systems to groundwater risk sources and the groundwater vulnerability index were used to indicate the spatial differences in the groundwater environment. The groundwater enviromental relative risk model (GERRM model) based on the synergy of the ‘ecological groundwater level quality resource area’ was constructed to quantitatively describe the groundwater environmental risk associated with groundwater pollution and the coupling risk of groundwater level mutation. The established method was applied to a case study in the lower Liaohe River Plain, which showed that: (1) The grade Ⅳ and Ⅴ risk zones were mainly located in chemical enterprises, a certain range of areas around hazardous waste landfill sites, and the Shenyang groundwater source protection area and ecological water level sensitive areas, covering an area of 2,107.33 km2 and accounting for 8.93% of the total area. (2) The grade Ⅰ and Ⅱ risk zones were mainly farmland, woodland and agricultural town construction areas, with a total area of 17,704.51 km2, accounting for 75.01% of the total area. According to the evaluation results, corresponding management and protection measures should be taken in the high-risk areas, and the construction and application of this method provide a new idea for comprehensive risk assessment of groundwater environments. The research shows that, The GERRM model is suitable for regional groundwater environmental risk assessment. Chemical enterprises, certain areas around hazardous waste landfills and Shenyang groundwater source protection area have the highest relative risks, and corresponding management and protection measures should be taken.
Key words:  ecological groundwater level  groundwater quality  groundwater source  environmental risk  evaluation method