引用本文:侯晓姝,许申来,周方,等.迁安市污水收集与处理效能定量评估[J].环境科学研究,2019,32(8):1402-1410.
HOU Xiaoshu,XU Shenlai,ZHOU Fang,et al.Quantitative Evaluation of Sewage Collection and Treatment Efficiency in Qianan City[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2019,32(8):1402-1410.]
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迁安市污水收集与处理效能定量评估
侯晓姝1, 许申来2, 周方1, 于若男1, 丁枫1, 李淼1, 刘翔1
1. 清华大学环境学院, 北京 100084;2. 北京清控人居环境研究院有限公司, 北京 100083
摘要:
污水收集与处理效能直接影响合流制排水体制下的水安全和水环境,是海绵城市建设中需要解析评估的重要内容.以迁安市为例,建立覆盖“污染源—管网关键节点—污水处理厂”的监测网络,基于同步水量、水质监测结果,定量解析生活污水污染物排放系数和污水处理系统收集与处理效能,并定位问题管段具体位置和主要问题.结果表明:①合流制小区CODCr、NH3-N排放系数分别为43.4、13.3 g/(人·d),分流制小区CODCr、NH3-N排放系数略高,分别为53.1、14.5 g/(人·d).②受地下水、河水入渗的双重影响,生活污水从进入市政管网后污染物质量浓度大幅下降,保守估计下入渗率约为32.5%,合流制管网截污干管至污水处理厂地下水、河水入渗量达到了14 471 m3/d,分流制干管至污水处理厂地下水入渗量约为19 777 m3/d.③污水处理厂进水水质指标均远小于设计进水水质,还存在C源不足、一部分比例的污水可生化性较差的特征,进水BOD5/TN〔ρ(BOD5)/ρ(TN)〕变化范围为0.47~4.32,平均值仅为1.68.研究显示,地下水/河水入渗严重降低污水收集处理效能,建议海绵城市建设中重视对于污水收集处理效能的摸底评估,并从污水处理系统设计和管网缺陷修复上大力整改.
关键词:  生活污水  同步监测  水量平衡  负荷平衡  进水特征  收集处理效能
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.03.10
分类号:X821
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(No.2017ZX07401)
Quantitative Evaluation of Sewage Collection and Treatment Efficiency in Qianan City
HOU Xiaoshu1, XU Shenlai2, ZHOU Fang1, YU Ruonan1, DING Feng1, LI Miao1, LIU Xiang1
1. School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;2. Tsinghua Holdings Human Settlements Environment Institute, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
The efficiency of sewage collection and treatment directly affects the water safety and water environment under the combined drainage system. It is an important factor to be evaluated in the construction of a sponge city. Taking Qianan City as an example, a monitoring network consisting'Pollution Source-Pipeline Network -Sewage Treatment Plant’was set up. Based on the simultaneous monitoring results of water quantity and quality, the domestic pollutant discharge coefficient and the collection and treatment efficiency of the sewage treatment systems were quantitatively analyzed. The main problems were identified and the specific locations were located. The results showed that: (1) The urban domestic pollutant discharge coefficient of CODCr for the combined sewer system was 43.4 g/(person·d), and of NH3-N was 13.3 g/(person·d). The domestic pollutant discharge coefficient of CODCr for the separate sewer system was 53.1 g/(person·d), and the coefficient of NH3-N was 14.5 g/(person·d), slightly higher than those of the combined sewer system. (2) Influenced by groundwater/river water infiltration, the concentration of domestic sewage decreased dramatically from entering the municipal pipeline network. The groundwater/river infiltration rate in the entire study area was approximately 32.5% under conservative estimates. The groundwater and river infiltration for the combined sewer system could reach up to 14,471 m3/d. The groundwater infiltration for the separate sewer system could reach up to 19,777 m3/d. (3) The river/groundwater infiltration and sewage leakage led to low influent concentration and the serious shortage of carbon source in sewage treatment plants. The BOD5/TN ranged from 0.47 to 4.32, with an average of 1.68. According to these results, the groundwater/river infiltration seriously reduces the efficiency of sewage collection and treatment. We suggest that the evaluation of sewage collection and treatment efficiency should be emphasized in the sponge city construction, and great efforts should be made to the system design and pipeline network defects.
Key words:  domestic sewerage  synchronous monitoring  water balance  load balance  influent characteristics  collection and treatment efficiency