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青岛冬季持续PM2.5重污染天气的大气边界层特征
马艳,黄容,时晓曚,王建林,孙萌,等
作者单位E-mail
马艳 青岛市气象局 qdyanma@163.com 
黄容 青岛市气象局  
时晓曚 青岛市气象局  
王建林 青岛市气象局  
孙萌 青岛市环境监测站  
摘要:
鲜有出现空气质量问题的北方沿海城市青岛近年来也频频出现重污染天气。2014年1月青岛市总计出现7 d重污染天气,其中1月15—18日是持续4 d的PM2.5重污染,其余的则分别出现在1月6日、11日和30日。为了获得气象条件对持续重污染天气发展、维持和消除的影响机制,本文利用激光雷达、大气稳定度仪探测数据以及地面、高空气象观测和空气质量监测数据,重点分析了1月15—18日持续重污染期间青岛市大气边界层气象要素的时间和空间特征。结果表明,在污染源稳定的背景下,气象要素的差异性导致了污染物浓度时空分布的差异。边界层内存在高层干冷弱北风和低层暖湿弱南风的风切变、稳定层结、低层高湿大气以及交替出现的近地面南北风是此次重污染持续的主要原因。较低的大气边界层高度变化对高污染物浓度的持续影响具有6 h左右的延迟;而低边界层高度、大稳定度因子,低云的存在和较高的污染物浓度之间具有较好的一致性趋势。当近地面温度升高、相对湿度减小以及增大的偏南风和存在弱不稳定层结时,有利于提高青岛局地大气扩散能力。
关键词:  大气边界层  风切变  激光雷达探测  稳定度
DOI:
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基金项目:
Characteristics of Planetary Boundary Layer for persistent PM2.5 Heavy Pollution in Winter over Qingdao
Ma Yan,Huang Rong,时晓曚,王建林,孙萌,et al
Abstract:
Qingdao, a northern coastal city previously with little air quality issue, has recently been invaded by severe air pollution. There were seven heavy air pollution days in January 2014 at Qingdao. During this month, one severe PM2.5 pollution event lasted four days from January 15 to 18, and the other three single day event occurred on January 6, 11 and 30, respectively. In order to understand the modulations of meteorological conditions on the development, persistence and removal of the long-lasting heavy pollution event, the spatial-temporal meteorological characteristics in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) during the period of January 15 to 18 were investigated by using Lidar, atmospheric stability monitoring as well as surface and upper-air meteorological and environmental observations. The results show that under stable emission conditions, different meteorological conditions may lead to the spatial-temporal differences of air pollutant. The 4-day event was mainly caused by the following characteristics in the PBL:wind shear with cold-weak northern wind in the higher level and warm-humid southern wind in the lower level, stable vertical structure, high humidity at low level and weak near-surface southerly and northerly wind alternation. The effect of the PBL height variations on the persistence of high pollutant seems to have a lag of 6 hours. However, good temporal agreement exists among the PBL height, the larger stability factor and low clouds. We found that with the increase of near-surface temperature, decrease of relative humidity, enhanced southerly wind as well as the weak unstable layer existed in the PBL were helpful for the improvement of atmospheric diffusion ability.
Key words:  PBL  Wind shear  Lidar monitoring  Stability