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12种水生植物的氮磷富集和水质净化能力比较研究
杨帆, 刘赢男, 焉志远, 隋心, 袁磊, 倪红伟
黑龙江省科学院自然与生态研究所
摘要:
阿什河是松花江重要的一级支流,水环境污染问题最为突出。针对阿什河流域氮磷污染严重、水质恶化、生物多样性低等问题,选取千屈菜(Lythrumsalicaria)、菖蒲(Acoruscalamus)、泽泻(Alismaplantago-aquatica)、慈姑(Sagittariatrifolia)、芦苇(Phragmitesaustralis)、菰(Zizanialatifolia)、显脉苔草(Carexkirganica)、水葱(Scirpusvalidus)、狭叶香蒲(Typhaangustifolia)、香蒲(Typhaorientalis)10种阿什河流域常见植物作为研究对象,在室内静水条件下对其氮磷富集和水质净化的能力进行比较研究。结果表明:①不同植物净增生物量之间具有显著差异(P<0.05),生物量的变化范围为492.71~939.19 g/m2,其中净增生物量最高的泽泻是最低的慈姑的1.91倍。②不同植物的植株茎叶部和根部的氮、磷含量也具有一定的差异,茎叶部TN含量变化范围为3.46~19.55 mg/g,TP含量变化范围为1.34~4.77 mg/g;根部TN含量变化范围为3.88~13.59 mg/g,TP含量变化范围为1.16~7.59 mg/g;TN、TP在茎叶部的富集能力均大于根部,有效刈割是彻底去除污染物的有效手段。③在TN、TP浓度为2.08~3.03、0.55~0.77 mg/L时,不同植物对水质的净化能力也存在一定的差异,不同植物对TN、TP的去除率范围64.96%~86.03%、64.64%~85.12%。④不同植物TN、TP富集贡献率范围分别为50.23%~80.71%、67.92%~93.44%。研究显示,植物净增生物量湿质量、干质量均与TP富集率相关性较高,可以作为植物筛选的一个重要的参考因素;水葱、芦苇、菰和千屈菜可作为阿什河流域生态修复的备选植物。
关键词:  水生植物      水质净化
DOI:
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基金项目:
Comparison of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Enrichment and Water Purification Ability of Twelve Aquatic Macrophytes
SUI XIN
Abstract:
Ashi river is an important tributary of Songhua river, but its water environmental pollution is serious. In order to alleviate the nitrogen and phosphorus pollution and low buffer biodiversity, we studied the enrichment ability of the nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) and water purification for ten common plants of Ashi river in the indoor smooth water conditions , which are Lythrumsalicaria, Acoruscalamus, Alismaplantago-aquatica, Sagittariatrifolia, Phragmitesaustralis, Zizanialatifolia, Carexkirganica, Scirpusvalidus, Typhaangustifolia, Typhaorientalis. The results showed that (1)the net accumulated biomass of different plants (the range from 492.71 g/m2 to 939.19 g/m2) were changed significantly (p<0.05), which the most and least biomass was A. plantago-aquatica and S. trifoliawhich, respectively; (2)there was no different in N and P concentration in root and stem leave of different plants. the range of total N and P contents in root were 3.46~19.55 mg/g and 1.37~4.77mg/g and the range of total N and P contents in stem, leave were 3.88~13.59 mg/g and 1.16~7.59 mg/g, respectively; the enrichment ability of stem and leaf were greater than the root, efficient mowing is the most effective measure to thoroughly remove nitrogen and phosphorus; (3) there was a little difference in the water purification ability among these ten plants. The removal efficiency of total N and P were 64.96%~86.03% and 64.64%~85.12%.(4) the enrichment efficiency of aquatic plant for N and P was 50.23%~80.71% and 67.92%~93.44%. The P enrichment efficiency correlated significantly with plant net and wet accumulated biomass, which can be used an important index to plant choosing. S. Validus, P. Australis, Z. latifolia and L. Solitary can be used the plant to be ecological remediation plants in Ashihe-drainage basin. The results can provide a scientific basis for water ecological remediation in the northern Alpine region of China.
Key words:  Aquatic macrophytes  Nitrogen  Phosphorus  Water quality purification