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山西农村地区燃煤采暖情况入户调查及排污量估算
谢卧龙,张怀德,刘鑫,苏艳霞,等
作者单位地址
谢卧龙 山西省环境规划院 山西省太原市迎泽区桃园北路民信商务508
张怀德 山西省气象科学研究所 
刘鑫 山西省环境规划院 
苏艳霞 山西省环境规划院 
摘要:
目前对北方农村地区燃煤采暖情况的调查研究主要集中在北京及其周边地区,尚缺少不同气候条件、不同经济水平下的更大范围的样本。为了系统掌握山西全省的农村燃煤采暖情况,并为北方同类地区提供参考,考虑不同地区冬季气温及年采暖期的差异,采用随机分层抽样方法,对山西省农村地区2015年燃煤采暖的情况进行了抽样调查,对全省燃煤采暖的燃煤量以及大气污染物排放量进行了估算。调查共在8市10县获得有效样本394个,结果显示山西省燃煤采暖的农户约占89.3%,户均采暖燃煤量3.4t/a。冬季气温对户均采暖燃煤量有显著影响,晋北严寒地区户均采暖燃煤量可达4.4t/a,而在晋南等相对温暖地区户均采暖燃煤量仅是其57%。在同一地区,家庭经济条件会影响选择的采暖器具,进而影响采暖燃煤量,经济条件较好家庭选择土暖气,户均燃煤量是选择暖炕加小煤炉采暖家庭的2.3倍。估算2014—2015采暖期山西省农村采暖燃煤约1297.8×104t,约分别排放PM、PM2.5、SO2、NOx、BC、OC、CO 13.0×104t、9.1×104t、19.9×104t、2.1×104t、4.1×104t、5.6×104t、123.3×104t。山西省单位面积采暖燃煤量约是北京、河北等同类地区的1/3,考虑到山西省经济条件较差,建议对城中村、城边村采暖实施煤改气、煤改电,其他地区则主要通过增强建筑的保温性,使用低硫煤等措施减少农村采暖燃煤排污。
关键词:  山西省  农村  采暖燃煤量  抽样调查  排污量
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:山西省科技攻关项目
Sampling survey and air pollutants emission estimation of coal combustion for heating in rurual areas of Shanxi
XIE Wo-long,ZHANG Huai-de,LIU Xin,SU Yanxia,et al
Abstract:
Existing sampling studies on the northern rural coal-burning heating situation were conducted mostly around Beijing and surrounding areas. More studies are needed in a larger scale, which cover different climate conditions and economic levels. In order to systematically study the situation of the coal-burning heating situation in rural areas of Shanxi and to provide reference for similar areas in northern China, a randomized stratified sampling method was used to conduct a sample survey on the scattered coal-burning heating situation in rural areas in Shanxi during 2015 heating season. Total coal consumption and air pollutants emission were estimated considering the spatial differences in winter temperature and annual heating days in Shanxi. A total of 394 valid samples were collected from 10 different counties in 8 cities. The results showed that, about 89.3% of households in rural areas in Shanxi are using coal-burning heating facilities and consume 3.4t coal per household every year. Coal consumption varies widely in different regions. Northern Shanxi with lower winter temperatures consumes up to 4.4t/a coal per household, while only 57% (2.5t/a) coal per household is used in relatively warmer areas in southern Shanxi. In a same area, the choice of heating equipment is affected by the economic conditions of a household, which further affects coal consumption. It’s estimated that about 1297.8 million tons coal is combusted for heating every year in rural areas of Shanxi, which leads to emission of PM, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, BC, OC and CO are 13.0, 9.1, 19.9, 2.1, 4.1, 5.6, 123.3 million tons, respectively. The average coal consumption in a unit area of Shanxi is about one third of similar areas in Beijing and Hebei. Considering the economic situation of Shanxi, it is suggested that, to prompt coal-to-gas and coal-to-electricity projects for the rural areas close to a city; to enhance heat retaining property of buildings that relatively far from cities. To reduce air pollutants emission, low-sulfur coal need to be used in coal-burning heating facilities in rural areas.
Key words:  Shanxi Province  rurual areas  amount of coal combusted for heating  sampling survey  air pollutants emission