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干旱区绿洲地下水生态系统安全评价研究——以新疆石河子垦区为例
徐斌1, 张艳2,2
1.长安大学环境科学与工程学院;2.长安大学地球科学与资源学院
摘要:
为评价干旱区绿洲新疆石河子垦区的地下水生态系统安全状况,基于自然、生态、环境、社会和经济5个属性构建了地下水生态安全评价指标体系,运用主成分分析法和灰色关联分析方法筛选16个指标作为干旱区绿洲地下水生态安全评价指标,制定了适合于干旱区绿洲的地下水生态安全等级与评价标准,基于层次分析法和熵值法进行了指标权重分配,确定了各项评价指标在不同安全等级的隶属函数,应用模糊综合评判法对研究区内5个灌区的地下水生态安全状况进行评价。结果表明:①石河子灌区、金安灌区和玛纳斯灌区对基本安全级别的隶属度最高,分别为32.2%、35.4%和27.5%,3个灌区的地下水生态系统处于基本安全状态,区域面积占垦区总面积的51.8%;②莫索湾灌区地下水生态系统处于危机状态,相应的隶属度为27.2%,区域面积占垦区总面积的16.8%;③下野地灌区地下水生态系统处于不安全状态,相应的隶属度为28.8%,区域面积占垦区总面积的31.4%。研究显示,评价结果与实际情况基本相符,综合反映了该区域人类活动与地下水、生态系统的相互关系,证明了模糊综合评判法在干旱区绿洲地下水生态系统安全评价中具有一定的应用价值。
关键词:  干旱区  绿洲  地下水  生态系统  安全评价
DOI:
分类号:Q14; P33
基金项目:
Assessment of Groundwater Ecosystem Security in Arid Oasis:A Case of the Shihezi Reclamation Area in Xinjiang, Northwest China
XU Bin1, ZHANG Yan2
1.School of Environment Science and Engineering,Chang’an University,Xi’an;2.School of Earth Science and Resources,Chang’an University,Xi’an
Abstract:
The study was carried out to assess the groundwater ecosystem security in Shihezi reclamation area in Xinjiang of China. The groundwater ecosystem security assessment system was established based on 5 attributes, including nature, ecology, environment, society and economy. Principal component analysis and grey correlation analysis were applied to screen 16 typical indicators for the assessment, and the ecological security grade and standards for groundwater ecosystem security assessment in arid oasis were established. Analytic Hierarchy Process and entropy method were adopted for the indicator weight determination. Membership functions for indicators of assessment were defined, and the generalized multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was used to assess the groundwater ecosystem security in five irrigation districts of the study area. The results show that: (1) Shihezi irrigation district, Jin’an irrigation district and Manas irrigation district possess the highest degree of membership for the fairly safe grade (being 32.2%, 35.4% and 27.5%, respectively) , which indicates that the three irrigation districts are in fairly safe state for the groundwater ecosystem, covering 51.8% of the total reclamation area. (2) The membership degree for Mosuowan irrigation district is 27.2%, and the corresponding groundwater ecosystem is in crisis state, occupying 16.8% of the total reclamation area. (3) The groundwater ecosystem in Xiayedi irrigation district is unsafe, and the corresponding membership is 28.8%. The unsafe area covers 31.4% of the total reclamation area. The assessment results are in accordance with the actual situation, and reflect the relationship between human activities and groundwater ecosystem in the region. The study proves that the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is applicable and useful in groundwater ecosystem security assessment in arid oasis.
Key words:  arid areas  oasis  groundwater  ecosystem  security assessment