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天津市城市扬尘及土壤尘单颗粒质谱特征
王海婷,温杰,徐娇,田瑛泽,史国良,冯银厂,李梅,等
作者单位E-mail
王海婷 南开大学环境科学与工程学院 nkwanghaiting@outlook.com 
温杰 南开大学环境科学与工程学院  
徐娇 南开大学环境科学与工程学院  
田瑛泽 南开大学环境科学与工程学院 tianyingze@hotmail.com 
史国良 南开大学环境科学与工程学院  
冯银厂 南开大学环境科学与工程学院  
李梅 暨南大学大气环境安全与污染控制研究所  
摘要:
本文使用单颗粒气溶胶质谱仪 (SPAMS) 对天津城市扬尘及不同类型土壤尘 (菜地、果园、林地、农田) 分析发现,天津城市扬尘在0.5-1.0μm占比较高,四种土壤尘在不同粒径段的分布略有差异,整体而言在小粒径段 (0.2-1.0μm) 占比低于大粒径段 (1.0-2.0μm),说明土壤尘更易分布在大粒径段。在小粒径段,天津城市扬尘颗粒含有更多的碳组分及硫酸盐,大粒径段含有较多的金属、氯、硝酸盐、磷酸盐及硅酸盐组分。与城市扬尘相比,土壤尘中23Na+、46NO2-峰强显著降低,39K+、35Cl-、42CNO-峰强增高,通过其峰强比值分布可将城市扬尘与土壤尘明显区分。颗粒物分类结果表明,与城市扬尘相比,土壤尘中含碳颗粒显著减少,同时出现钾类颗粒。城市扬尘作为一种混合源,含碳颗粒可能受多种排放源 (机动车、燃煤等) 影响,而土壤尘中钾类颗粒可能与农作物施肥有关。 两种源类含27Al+、26CN-、35Cl-、42CNO-、46NO2-、76SiO3-、79PO3-的颗粒占比均高于50%,其中40Ca+、46NO2-和62NO3-颗粒在天津城市扬尘中占比更高,76SiO3-颗粒在土壤尘中占比更高,表明天津城市扬尘中更多的颗粒含有钙和硝酸盐组分,土壤尘中含硅酸盐颗粒较多。需要注意的是,在机动车、生物质等源类中占比较高的97HSO4-颗粒,在天津城市扬尘及土壤尘中占比较低,表明天津城市扬尘及土壤尘中含硫酸盐的颗粒较少。
关键词:  城市扬尘  土壤尘  粒径分布  单颗粒  SPAMS
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0208500);国家自然科学基金项目(21707071);天津市自然科学基金 (17JCYBJC23000)
Characteristics of Single Urban Raised Dust and Soil Dust in Tianjin
WANG Haiting,WEN Jie,XU Jiao,TIAN Yingze,SHI Guoliang,FENG Yinchang,LI Mei,et al
Abstract:
Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was used in this study to analysis the characteristics of single urban raised dust and four types soil dust (vegetable soil, orchard soil, wood soil and cropland soil), results showed more urban raised dust appeared between 0.5 and 1.0μm compared with other sources, the size distribution of four soil dust had slight differences, generally speaking the fraction of soil particle in the range of 0.2-1.0μm was lower than 1.0-2.0μm, indicating the soil dust prefer to concentrating in the larger size. As for urban raised dust, more carbonaceous species and sulfate appear in smaller particle size, while more metal, chlorine, nitrate, phosphate and silicate in the larger. Compared with urban raised dust, in soil dust the 23Na+, 46NO2- intensified significantly, 39K+, 35Cl- and 42CNO- weakened, and the urban raised dust and soil dust can be distinguished basing on the distribution of the specific intensity ratios. Moreover, the classification results showed in soil dust the carbonaceous particles decreased, and the K particles appear, the urban raised dust was considered as mixed source, the carbonaceous species particles in urban raised dust may from different sources such as vehicle and coal burning, and the K particles in soil dust may relate to the fertilization. Particles contained 27Al+, 26CN-, 35Cl-, 42CNO-, 46NO2-, 76SiO3- and 79PO3- dominated (exceeding 50%) in both urban raised dust and soil dust, with 40Ca+, 46NO2-, 62NO3- obviously in urban raised dust and 76SiO3- in soil dust, indicating more calcium and nitrate species in urban raised dust and more silicate in soil dust. Fewer 97HSO4- particles in urban raised dust and soil dust showed limited sulfate in the two sources.
Key words:  urban raised dust  soil dust  size distribution  single particle  SPAMS