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武汉市大气PM2.5中多环芳烃的分布特征及来源
李宽
武汉理工大学
摘要:
为研究武汉市大气质量状况,在武汉市ID(工业区)、DT(中心城区)、BG(植物园)3个采样点连续1 a同步采集了大气中的PM2.5(细颗粒物)样品,并研究了其中PAHs(多环芳烃)的浓度特征(以质量浓度计)、来源和健康风险. 结果表明,武汉市ID、DT、BG的年均ρ(PAHs)分别为(75.6±28.1)、(59.8±22.8)、(24.3±9.2) ng/m3,并呈现冬季最高、夏季最低的季节变化趋势,3个采样点中,ID、DT、BG的PAHs浓度依次降低. PMF(正定矩阵因子分析)结果显示,ID、DT、BG的PAHs的主要来源分别为燃煤和扬尘(35%和33%)、机动车和扬尘(30%和34%)、机动车和木质燃烧(33%和32%),在ID和DT,扬尘对大气颗粒物中PAHs的贡献都很大,而燃煤和木质燃烧分别是ID和BG区域PAHs的重要来源,在3个采样点中,机动车对颗粒物中PAHs贡献都较大,尤其是DT和BG,机动车的贡献都超过30%. 利用后向轨迹模型分析采样期时武汉市的气团来源,并结合每天的ρ(PAHs)发现,不同聚类气团对应的ρ(PAHs)差异很小,表明区域传输对武汉市PAHs贡献不大. 通过武汉市大气颗粒物中PAHs吸入风险评估发现,武汉市PAHs的吸入风险范围在10-7~10-5之间,ID和DT的部分人群的吸入风险稍高于安全范围(10-6以下),有潜在的致癌风险.
关键词:  多环芳烃  正定矩阵因子分析  后向轨迹  风险评估
DOI:
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
Characteristics and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric PM2.5 of Wuhan, China
li kuan
Wuhan University of Technology
Abstract:
Fine particle (PM2.5) samples were collected simultaneously at three sites in Wuhan for one year in an industrial area (ID), downtown area (DT), and botanical gardens (BG). The spatiotemporal variations and sources of PAHs were studied followed by the health risk estimation. The highest annual average concentration of PAHs was found to be 75.6±28.1 ng/m3 at ID site while the lowest one was observed in the BG site with an average of 24.3±9.2 ng/m3. The annual average concentration of PAHs in DT site was 59.8±22.8 ng/m3. Additionally, the concentrations of PAHs exhibited a clear season pattern across all sites, with the highest values occurring during wintertime and the lowest values occurring in summer. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model revealed that coal combustion and dust (35% and 33%)、vehicle exhaust and dust (30% and 34%)、vehicle exhaust and wood burning (33% and 32%) were the primary contributors at ID, DT, and BG sites, respectively. Dust had a great impact at ID and DT sites, coal combustion had the largest impact at ID, while wood burning had a great impact at BG. It noteworthy that vehicle exhaust was a major contributor to PAHs at all sites, especially in ID and DT, which contributed more than 30 percent of total PAHs. Backward trajectory analysis accompanied with daily PAHs concentrations was used to investigate the transport pathway of air masses arriving at Wuhan. Given the PAHs concentrations were comparable in different trajectories, it can be concluded that regional transport of air mass has insignificant contributions to the PAHs in Wuhan. In addition, health risk assessment indicated the inhalation risk of PAHs was 10-5~10-7 in Wuhan, which was slightly higher than the safe criteria of 10-6, illustrating the potential cancer risk of PAHs inhalation in Wuhan.
Key words:  PAHs  PMF  backward trajectory analysis  risk assessment