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聊城市冬季PM2.5及水溶性离子污染特征及来源分析
张敬巧,王淑兰,罗达通
作者单位E-mail
张敬巧 中国环境科学研究院 zhangjq@craes.org.cn 
王淑兰 中国环境科学研究院  
罗达通 湖南省环境保护科学研究院  
摘要:
为研究聊城市冬季PM2.5污染特征, 2016年1月7日至29日在聊城市区对PM2.5样品进行了采集,并对其水溶性离子包括F-、Cl-、NO3-、SO42-、NH4+、Ca2+、Na+、Mg2+、K+进行了分析。结果显示,观测期间聊城市ρ(PM2.5)平均值为(192.4±88.9)μg/m3,超过GB 3095—2012《环境空气质量标准》二级标准1.6倍;水溶性离子质量浓度为(77.4±46.9)μg/m3,占ρ(PM2.5)的40.2%,其中NO3-、SO42-和NH4+(SNA)为主要离子,占水溶性离子比例达到了82.5%。轻度、中度、重度及严重污染时PM2.5中水溶性离子质量浓度分别为(32.49±3.67) (42.26±17.66)(77.11±11.64)和(131.48±51.71)μg/m3,SNA分别占占ρ(PM2.5)的24.4%、26.7%、30.4%和39.0%,随污染程度加重SNA比例升高;观测期间SOR(硫转化率)与NOR(氮转化率)的平均值分别为0.18和0.20,随ρ(PM2.5)升高SOR及NOR明显上升,表明冬季PM2.5污染越严重SO2与NO2的转化速率越强,二次无机污染严重;主成分分析结果表明,二次转化、扬尘源及工业生产为水溶性离子的主要来源;后向气流轨迹结果显示,观测期间污染气团主要来源于西北方向,受内蒙及河北城市影响较大,但当污染气团来源于周边城市且天气静稳时,颗粒物浓度最高。研究显示,聊城市冬季PM2.5污染严重。
关键词:  聊城  PM2.5  水溶性离子  二次污染  来源
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划专题(2014BAC23B05)
Characterization and source analysis of PM2.5 and water-soluble ions during winter in Liaocheng
Abstract:
PM2.5 samples were collected in Liaocheng at January 7 to 29, 2016, and the water-soluble ions in PM2.5 include F-、Cl-、NO3-、SO42-、NH4+、Ca2+、Na+、Mg2+、K+ were analyzed . The results showed ρ(PM2.5) in Liaocheng during sample collecting period was (192.4±88.9) μg/m3, exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard more than 1.6 times; Total water-soluble ions concentration was (77.4±46.9)μg/m3, accounting for 40.2% of PM2.5, NO3-、SO42-、NH4+(SNA)were the main ions and accounted for 82.5% of total ions. During mild, moderate, severe and extremely severe contamination level, the water-soluble ions concentration was(32.49±3.67) ( 42.26±17.66)(77.11±11.64) and (131.48±51.71)μg/m3 respectively, the ratio of SNA accounted for PM2.5 were 24.4%、26.7%、30.4%和39.0% respectively, this ratio rised up as the pollution level increased. The mean values of SOR and NOR were 0.18 and 0.20 respectively during research period, and with the increase of PM2.5 concentration, SOR and NOR increased obviously, indicating that secondary transformation rate was promoted under severe pollution, and secondary inorganic pollution was serious during winter; The results of principal component analysis showed that the secondary transformation, dust source and industrial production were the main sources of water-soluble ions .The backward trajectories of air mass result showed the polluted air mass mainly came from northwest direction during observation period ,which was influenced by Inner Mongolia and Hebei cities, however, when the air mass came from the surrounding cities and the weather was stable, the PM2.5 concentration was highest. The result showed PM2.5 pollution was serious in Liaocheng city.
Key words:  Liaocheng  PM2.5  water-soluble ions  secondary transformation  source analysis