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和田市城区PM2.5化学组成特征及来源分析
苏吾比努尔.热克甫,玉散.吐拉甫,迪丽努尔.塔力甫,王新明,阿布力克木.阿不力孜,亚力昆江.吐尔逊,丁翔,等
1.新疆大学煤炭清洁转化与化工过程自治区重点实验室;2.中国科学院广州地球化学研究所
摘要:
为了了解中国极干旱区域和田市城区大气PM2.5的组成特征及污染水平,于2014年1月至12月采集和田市城区大气PM2.5样品,并用气相色谱—质谱联用仪(GC-MS)、离子色谱仪(IC)、电感耦合等离子体质谱仪(ICP-MS)及元素分析仪分析其中PAHs(多环芳烃)、金属元素、水溶性无机离子、OC(有机碳)和EC(元素碳)等化学组分。结果表明,采样期间和田市城区大气PM2.5质量浓度年均值为(770.11±568.0)μg/m3,呈夏季最高、冬季最低趋势;金属元素、水溶性离子、OC、EC、ΣPAHs分别占PM2.5质量浓度的15.29%、9.79%、4.25%、0.33%、0.02%。利用PMF(正交矩阵因子分解法)分别对PM2.5中PAHs和金属元素、水溶性无机离子、OC、EC进行来源解析表明,PAHs主要来源为煤和汽油排放(13.91%)、生物质燃烧(33.98%)、天然气燃烧(52.11%);金属元素、水溶性离子、OC、EC的主要来源为土壤尘(56.49%)、油类燃烧(25.49%)、机动车排放(10.09%)、燃煤及生物质燃烧(7.93%)。研究显示,采样期间沙尘对和田市城区大气PM2.5组成影响较大,是该地区大气污染来源的主要因素。
关键词:  和田市城区  PM2.5  化学组成  正交矩阵因子分解法
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基金项目:国家自然科学(41465007);中国沙漠气象科学研究(Sqj2013003)
Chemical characterization and Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in Urban Area of Hotan, China
SUWUBINUER Rekefu1, YUSAN Turap1, DILNUR Talip1,2,3,2, WANG Xinming3, ABULIKEMU Abulizi1, YALIKUNJIANG Tuerxun1, DING Xiang3
1.Key Laboratory of Coal Cleaning Conversion and Chemical Engineering Process,Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region,Xinjiang University;2.China;3.State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry,Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
In order to understand the component characteristics and contamination situation of atmospheric PM2.5 in the urban area of Hotan, which was the extreme arid area in China, PM2.5 samples were collected periodically from January to December in 2014. The seasonal distribution of the mass concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metal elements, water-soluble inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were analyzed by chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), ion chromatographer (IC), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and elemental analyzer, respectively. The results showed that the annual average mass concentration of PM2.5 was (770.11±568.0)μg/m3 during the sampling period, with the highest in summer and the lowest in winter. The total mass of metal elements, water-soluble ions, OC, EC and PAHs accounted for 15.29%, 9.79%, 4.25%, 0.33% and 0.02% of PM2.5, respectively. Subsequently, a positive matrix factorization method (PMF) was exploited to analyze the sources of the components in PM2.5. The PAHs mainly stemmed from coal/gasoline emissions (13.91%), biomass combustion (33.98%) and natural gas combustion (52.11%). PMF also identified that dust (56.49%), oil burning (25.49%), motor vehicle emissions (10.09%), coal burning and biomass combustion (7.93%) were the main sources of the other components of PM2.5. The effect of sandstorm on the composition of PM2.5 was remarkable. The sandstorm was considered to be the major factor for the local air pollution.
Key words:  Hotan urban area  PM2.5  chemical composition  positive matrix factorization method