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借鉴新安江流域水质补偿制度成功经验,深化三峡水库水污染防治,保障长江流域水环境安全
郑丙辉, 秦延文, 张雷, 马迎群, 汪星, 王丽婧, 李虹
中国环境科学研究院
摘要:
三峡水库是我国重要战略水资源库。三峡水库蓄水后,库区富营养化问题日益凸显,总氮、总磷成为影响库区水质的主要污染因子,其中80%~85%入库氮、磷污染负荷来自流域上游。受长江富含营养物质水质输入和流域内人类活动面源输入等共同影响,长江中下游超过80%的湖泊发生富营养化,长江口及其毗邻海域赤潮频发。因此,三峡库区及上游流域仅实施国家统一的化学耗氧量和氨氮水污染物目标总量控制已不能满足流域水环境安全要求。为保障三峡水库、长江中下游湖泊和东海海域环境安全,支撑长江经济带可持续发展,应按照湖泊保护的要求,进一步深化三峡库区及上游流域氮、磷污染控制与治理。新安江是我国第一个跨省流域水质补偿试点,2010~2013年间,为加强新安江水污染防治,提高流域生态环境保护水平,中央财政、浙江、安徽两省共拨付资金12.7亿元,试点工作启动后,新安江跨界断面连续三年水质均符合补偿协议要求,高锰酸盐指数、氨氮和总磷浓度均下降,水质恶化趋势得到有效控制。借鉴新安江流域水质补偿试点实施的成功经验,就“十三五”期间继续深化三峡库区及上游流域水污染防治问题,提出三点建议:(1)国家、下游和上游省(市)政府三方共同出资,建立长江流域水质补偿专项资金;(2)科学制定三峡水库水污染防治规划,强化三峡库区及上游流域氮、磷污染负荷控制;(3)建立并实施长江流域跨行政区水环境质量考核制度。
关键词:  生态补偿  三峡库区  水污染防治  政策建议
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基金项目:中国科学院科技服务网络计划(STS)项目(KFJ-EW-STS-010)
Policy suggestion about water pollution control in the Three Gorges Reservoir and water quality protection in the Yangtze River basin based on successful experience of water quality compensation in Xin’anjiang River basin
ZHENG Binghui, QIN Yanwen, ZHANG Lei, MA Yingqun, WANG Xing, WANG Lijing, LI Hong
Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
Abstract:
The Three Gorges Reservoir is an important strategic water resources reserve in China. After the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, eutrophication in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area has been increasingly prominent. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) have become the main pollution factors affecting water quality in the reservoir area. Among them, 80% to 85% of the TN and TP comes from the upper reaches. Due to the influence of nutrients water input from Yangtze River and non-point source pollution by human activities, more than 80% of the lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin have eutrophicated, and the red tide frequently occurs in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent sea areas. The implementation of target total content control of COD and NH4-N in the Three Gorges reservoir and upper reaches areas could not meet the requirements of water environment safety management of the basin. In order to assure the environmental safety of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the East China Sea, as well as support the sustainable development of the economic belt in the Yangtze River, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution control and treatment should be further deepened in accordance with the requirements of lake protection. Water quality compensation in Xin’anjiang River basin is the first pilot of water quality compensation for inter provincial river in China. During the period of 2010~2013, about 1.27 billion yuan from national financial, Zhejiang and Anhui province was used to control water pollution and protect ecological environment in Xin''anjiang River basin. Since the project initiation, water quality of the examined cross-section met the requirements of the compensation agreement in three consecutive years. Concentrations of CODMn, NH4-N and TP were all decreased, indicating the water quality deterioration has been controlled. Based on the successful experience of water quality compensation in Xin’anjiang River basin, policy suggestion about water pollution control in the Three Gorges Reservoir and upper reaches was proposed as following: (i) Special fund for water quality compensation should be established with funds from the state, the upstream and downstream provinces in the Yangtze River Basin. (ii) Prevention and control of nitrogen and phosphorus should be strengthened by scientific plan of water pollution prevention and control in the Three Gorges Reservoir. (iii) Cross regional water quality assessment system should be established and implemented in the Yangtze River Basin.
Key words:  Ecological compensation  Three Gorges Reservoir  Water pollution prevention and control  Policy suggestion