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福建四种主要乔木枝、叶燃烧含碳物质排放特性分析
鞠园华1, 杨夏捷1, 彭徐剑2,2, 马远帆1, 郭林飞1, 蔡奇均1, 郭福涛1
1.福建农林大学林学院;2.南京森林警察学院
摘要:
运用自主设计的生物质燃烧系统,模拟福建四种主要乔木树种马尾松、杉木、樟树、桉树的枝叶燃烧,分析其在不同燃烧状态下含碳气体、PM2.5的排放因子以及颗粒物中的碳质组分之间的差异性。结果表明,四种乔木燃烧排放含碳气体、PM2.5的排放因子以及PM2.5的碳质组分在不同燃烧状态下表现出较大差异。四种乔木枝叶CO2、CO、CxHy、PM2.5的平均排放因子在阴燃时分别为(1400.7±76.5)、(297.6±16.2)、(25.21±3.85)、(23.91±4.27)g/kg,明燃时分别为(1582.8±73.2)、(253.55±16.1)、(17.23±3.67)、(8.35±2.79)g/kg,除CO2外其他多为阴燃显著高于明燃。针叶树种(杉木,马尾松)枝、叶在阴燃时PM2.5的排放因子高于阔叶树种(樟树,桉树),而明燃时差异相对较小。PM2.5中有机碳(OC)、元素碳(EC)、TC(TC=OC+EC)的平均质量分数阴燃时分别为45.6%、12.0%、57.6%,明燃时分别为42.9%、17.6%、60.5%。PM2.5、OC、EC之间的比值在两种燃烧状态下具有不同的特征,其特征值可作为区分不同燃烧源或不同燃烧状态的指标;OC/PM2.5在阴明燃时差异不大,均值分别为2.43、2.59;EC/PM2.5明燃显著高于阴燃,均值分别为2.36、0.66;OC/EC明燃低于阴燃,均值分别为2.59和4.01。此外,在两种燃烧状态下OC与PM2.5的排放因子均呈现显著相关关系。
关键词:  杉木  乔木燃烧  烟气排放  PM2.5  排放因子
DOI:
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基金项目:国家自然科学(No.31770697; No.31400552);福建农林大学杰出青年(No.xjq201613);福建农林大学国际科技与合作交流项目(KXB16008A)
Carbon Emission Characteristics of Branch and Leaf of Four Tree Species in FujianSProvince
JU Yuanhua1, YANG Xiajie1, PENG Xujian2, MA Yuanfan1, GUO Linfei1, CAI Qijun1, GUO Futao1
1.College of Forestry,Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University;2.Nanjing Forest Police College
Abstract:
The branches and leaves of four dominant tree species, Masson pine, Chinese fir, camphor, eucalyptus, were burned based on independent-designed biomass combustion system for analyzing the variation of emission factor of carbonaceous and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) between tree species under different combustion conditions. The results showed that the emission factors of carbonaceous and PM2.5 and the carbon content within PM2.5 significantly varied amongst four tree species under different combustion status. The average emission factor of CO2、CO、CxHy、PM2.5 from four tree species are 1400.7±76.5 g/kg、297.6±16.2 g/kg、25.21±3.85 g/kg、23.91±4.27g/kg, respectively during smoldering combustion; correspondingly, the values are 1582.8±73.2 g/kg、253.55±16.1 g/kg、17.23±3.67 g/kg、8.35±2.79 g/kg during flaming burning status. Except for CO2, the emission factors of all other pollutants from smoldering burning are higher than that of flaming burning. The branch and leaf of coniferous trees emitted more PM2.5 that broadleaf trees in the smoldering status; however, the difference is relatively small during flaming burning. The average mass fraction of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and total carbon (TC, TC=OC+EC) of PM2.5 during smoldering combustion were 45.6%, 12.0%, 57.6%, respectively and were 42.9%, 17.6% and 60.5% correspondingly during flaming combustion. The ratio between PM2.5, OC and EC significantly varied between two different combustion condition, which can be used to differentiate the different combustion sources or different combustion condition. There is no significant difference in the rate of OC to PM2.5 (OC/PM2.5) between smoldering (2.43) and flaming burning (2.59);however, the EC/PM2.5 in flaming burning (2.36) is significant higher than that of smoldering burning (0.66); OC/EC in flaming burning (2.59) is significant lower than that of smoldering burning (4.01). In addition, the emission factors of OC and PM2.5 were significantly correlated between two combustion status.
Key words:  Chinese fir  trees burning  gaseous emission  PM2.5  emission factor