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基于重要生态节点独流减河流域生态廊道构建
徐威杰1, 陈晨1, 张哲2, 邵晓龙1, 张晓惠1, 张彦1
1.天津市环境保护科学研究院;2.中国环境科学研究院
摘要:
河道、湿地、湖库和河口等生态节点是区域生物多样性保护的重要景观要素,而生态廊道是连接这些重要生态节点的“桥梁”和“纽带”。针对中尺度流域景观破碎化问题,以天津市独流减河流域为例,在景观生态学理论指导下,借助GIS与RS技术,基于“河道-湿地-湖库-河口”等重要生态节点,重点考虑景观类型和人类活动干扰的影响,利用最小累积阻力模型构建生态廊道,识别生态节点与生态断裂点,并对其空间结构进行定量化分析,进而规划设计了研究区的生态框架。结果表明:①45条生态廊道的网络连接度评价指标——?指数(网络环度)、?指数(节点连接率)和?指数(连接度)分别为0.32、1.56、0.56,说明廊道网络具有较高的连通性和复杂度,有利于生态流的顺畅流动。②共识别26个生态节点和35个生态断裂点,明确了研究区需重点保护建设和修复改善的关键点(区)的地理位置。③廊道最佳宽度为30~60 m,空间配置以草地、林地和水域等重要景观类型为主,约占70.63%~78.97%,能够为物种提供高质量的栖息地和迁移通道。④廊道网络中河流廊道为主要廊道类型,其长度约占廊道总长度的51.19%,具有丰富的水资源和植被种类,所构建的“一轴两心九带”的生态框架具有重要的生态服务功能。研究显示,基于重要生态节点构建生态廊道和生态框架能够提高独流减河流域的景观连接度,对该流域的生态安全格局规划和生态工程建设具有重要参考价值。
关键词:  景观破碎化  最小累积阻力模型  生态节点  生态廊道  河流廊道  生态框架
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2015ZX07203-011);天津市科技计划项目(14ZCDGSF00126)
Ecological Corridor Construction Based on Important Ecological Nodes in Duliujian River Basin
XU Wei-jie, CHEN Chen1, ZHANG Zhe2, SHAO Xiao-long1, ZHANG Xiao-hui1, ZHANG Yan1
1.Institute of Water and Eco-Environment,Tianjin Academy of Environmental Sciences;2.Center for Ecological Progress Research,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
Abstract:
River, wetland, lake and estuary are important landscape elements in the regional biodiversity conservation, and the ecological corridor is the important linkage for these ecological nodes. In terms of the problem of landscape fragmentation in the mesoscale basin, this study takes the Duliujian River Basin in Tianjin as an example, highlighting impacts of landscape type and human activities following the guidance of landscape ecological theory, with the help of GIS and RS technologies. Base on such important ecological nodes as "river-wetland-lake-estuary", this study constructed the ecological corridor were using the minimum cumulative resistance model and identified the ecological nodes and ecological breakpoints. Furthermore, the spatial structure of the corridor network was analyzed quantitatively and finally, the ecological framework was designed. The results showed: ① The evaluation indexes of ?(network circuit degree), ?(node connection rate) and ?(connectivity) of the network connectivity for these 45 ecological corridors were respectively 0.32, 1.56 and 0.56, indicating a high connectivity and complexity of the corridor network, and in favor of the ecological flow. ② The 26 ecological nodes and 35 ecological breakpoints were identified, and the geographic position of the key points (areas) for the important protection and restoration in this study area were specified. ③ The optimal width of the corridor was 30~60m, and the spatial configuration should be dominated by important landscape types such as grassland, woodland and waters, accounting for 70.63%~78.97%, in order to provide high-quality habitat and migration pathway for the species. ④ The major corridor type, with plentiful water resource and vegetation types, was river corridor, and its length was about 51.19% of the total length. The "one axis, two center and nine strips" have important ecological service functions and can be provided by the ecological framework. The research shows that the ecological corridors and ecological framework constructed based on important ecological nodes can improve the landscape connectivity degree in Duliujian River Basin, which have important reference value for the ecological safety planning and ecological engineering construction in this river basin.
Key words:  landscape fragmentation  minimum cumulative resistance model  ecological node  ecological corridor  network connectivity  river corridor  ecological framework