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典型农药废盐热处理特性及适用性研究
李唯实1, 徐亚2, 雷国元1, 黄泽春2, 董路2, 刘玉强2, 黄启飞2
1.武汉科技大学;2.中国环境科学研究院固体废物污染控制技术研究所
摘要:
随着我国农药行业的迅速发展,农药废盐的管理和无害化处置已经成为亟待解决的环境问题. 为了解决农药废盐热处理适用性的问题,推进废盐热处理工业化进程,选择盐城某企业典型农药废盐开展热重试验和动力学模型研究以分析废盐的热处理特性;基于热重试验和动力模型获取的优化参数,进一步利用管式炉模拟试验研究探究循环流化床焚烧炉处置废盐的可行性. 结果表明:该农药废盐热解和燃烧的失重过程相似,在升温过程中一直处于缓慢失重的状态,但均只有一个明显失重阶段,热解的失重阶段为170~298 ℃,700 ℃时减重率达到84.08%,燃烧的失重阶段为194~315 ℃,700 ℃时减重率达到81.45%,为了使废盐充分反应,根据热重结果确定热处理温度为350 ℃;同时热处理动力学表明,燃烧和热解在失重阶段反应机理相同,氧气的存在可以促进废盐的热处理过程,确定了热处理的气氛为空气组分,该农药废盐属于低热值成分复杂的固体废物;在上述条件下,利用管式炉模拟试验进一步优化了废盐的热处理条件为温度350 ℃、停留时间45 min、空气组分、空气流量40 mL/min. 对热处理后的残留物及烟气进行GC/MS分析发现,热处理法可以有效降低废盐当中有机污染物的含量,烟气当中有害物质以苯系物为主,含有少量氯苯及氯代烃类有机物. 研究显示,经过管式炉热处理实验后,废盐当中有机污染物的去除率达到了82.93%,可以有效降低有机污染物的含量,从而验证了该类废盐热处理的适用性,为废盐的热处理提供了理论支持.
关键词:  农药废盐  燃烧  热解  热处理
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:环保公益性行业科研专项(201509052);国家自然科学基金项目(61503219);中央级院所基本科研业务专项重点项目(2016YSKY14)
Thermal Treatment Characteristics and Adaptability of Typical Pesticide Waste Salt
Li Weishi1, Xu Ya2, Huang Zechun2
1.Wuhan University of Science and Technology;2.Research Institute of Solid Waste Management,Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences
Abstract:
With the rapid development of pesticide manufacture in our country, the management and disposal of pesticide waste salt has become an urgent environmental issue. In order to solve the problem of the applicability of thermal treatment, promote the industrialization process of thermal treatment for pesticide waste salt(PWS) disposal, typical salts were sampled from an agrochemical enterprise in Yancheng. Thermo-gravimetric (TG) experiment, combined with the kinetic model analysis were conducted to explore its heat treatment characteristics. Further, based on the optimization parameters obtained from TG experiment and kinetic model, the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed incinerator for PWS disposal is further studied by tube furnace simulation test. The experimental result indicated: The process of weight loss of combustion and pyrolysis of PWS is similar to the state of slow weightlessness during the process of heating, with only one stage of weightlessness. The weightlessness stage of pyrolysis is 170 - 298 ℃ and the weight loss rate reachs 84.08% at 700 ℃. Also the weightlessness phase of combustion is 194 - 315 ℃ and the weight loss rate reachs 81.45% at 700 ℃. In order to make the PWS fully reacted, the thermal treatment temperature is determined to be 350 ℃ according to the TG test. Meanwhile, kinetics showed that the reaction mechanism of combustion and pyrolysis in the weightlessness stage is the same. The existence of oxygen can promote the thermal treatment process of PWS. It is determined that the atmosphere of heat treatment is air components. The PWS of the pesticide belongs to the solid waste with low calorific value and complex components. Under the above conditions, the thermal treatment conditions of the PWS were further optimized by the tube furnace simulation test at the temperature of 350 ℃, the retention time of 45 min, the air component, the air flow rate of 40 mL/min. Moreover, the paper also made GC/MS analysis of the residue and exhaust gas after thermal treatment. It has been found the thermal treatment can reduce the content of organic matters effectively. Among the harmful substances in the exhaust gas are mainly benzene series, which also contain a small amount of chlorobenzene and chlorinated hydrocarbon organics. Research shows that after the tube furnace heat treatment experiment, the removal rate of organic pollutants in PWS reaches 82.93%, which can effectively reduce the content of organic pollutants. Thus, according to the pyrolysis characteristics, the applicability of PWS heat treatment is verified, which provides a theoretical basis for the heat treatment of PWS.
Key words:  pesticide waste salt  combustion  pyrolysis  thermal treatment