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基于绿色全要素生产率的“两山”转化效率测度方法
高涵, 叶维丽, 彭硕佳, 张文静
生态环境部环境规划院
摘要:
为探讨“绿水青山”转化为“金山银山”的转化途径,评估不同地区“两山”转化效率,通过在以资本、劳动力测算TFP(全要素生产率,Total factor productivity)的过程中,加入“绿水青山资源”作为生产要素投入,界定了体现环境资本的GTFP(绿色全要素生产率,Green total factor productivity)概念,构建了基于Malmquist-DEA模型的GTFP测算方法. 以拥有全国最多“两山”实践基地称号的浙江省为研究对象,构建基于2005—2016年面板数据,具有地表水达到或优于Ⅲ类的断面比例、环境空气优良天数比例、森林覆盖率等7项投入以及地区生产总值1项产出的“两山”转化效率测度评估指标体系. 计算对比2005—2016年浙江省全省及各地市TFP和GTFP的结果表明:12年间浙江省全省TFP平均技术效率变动值为0.980,总体处于下降趋势,考虑GTFP后的平均技术效率变动值为0.976. “两山”实践创新基地——衢州市、湖州市的平均GTFP分别为0.980和0.962,“绿水青山资源”与资本、劳动力资源效率相当,相对稳定;杭州市、宁波市、金华市的平均GTFP分别为1.006、0.992、0.983,居于浙江省全省前列. 从技术效率变动角度来看,2005—2016年衢州市、金华市、丽水市历年GTFP稳定、技术效率持续增长,“绿水青山资源”作为要素投入可推动技术效率提升与经济增长,佐证“绿水青山就是金山银山”的论断;嘉兴市GTFP累计下降37%,“绿水青山资源”匮乏成为其短板. 研究显示,在“绿水青山资源”供给水平较高的浙江省,良好的生态资源能够推动经济发展,在GTFP指数累积上升的地市中能够发挥比传统的劳动力与资本更高的资源配置效率.
关键词:  绿色全要素生产率  数据包络分析  “绿水青山就是金山银山”
DOI:
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基金项目:湖州市生态环境局咨询研究项目(No.2019H127)
A method of Measuring the Conversion Efficiency from “Lucid Waters and Lush Mountains” to “Invaluable Assets” Based on Green Total Factor Productivity
Gao Han, YE WEILI
Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning(CAEP)
Abstract:
In order to explore the key of “lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets” and evaluate the conversion efficiency in different regions, this study builds the measurement methods of transformation efficiency based on Malmquist-DEA model. The concept of Green Total Factor Productivity (GTFP) reflecting environmental capital is defined by introducing environment background factor as an input factor of traditional Total Factor Productivity (TFP). An indicator system involving economic environmental indicators such as surface water environment quality, air quality, forest coverage and GDP was built to evaluate the conversion efficiency from “Lucid Waters and Lush Mountains” to “Invaluable Assets” . Zhejiang Province was selected as a pilot area. Based on the trail result of regional TFP and GTFP in 2005-2016, the average Technical Efficiency Changes in TFP and GTFP values in Zhejiang Province were 0.980 and 0.976, separately, suggesting a degradation trend. The average GTFP values of Quzhou and Huzhou were 0.980 and 0.962, respectively, indicating environmental background indicator played the same role stably as capital and labor indicator did. The highest average GTFP value was observed in Hangzhou (1.006), followed by Ningbo (0.992) and Jinhua (0.983). Quzhou, Jinhua and Lishui showed increasing tendencies for Technical Efficiency Change and relative constant GTFP, indicating that high-quality environment background could help boost Technical Efficiency Change and economic growth, demonstrating the conviction that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets. In contrast, GTFP value of Jiaxing declined by 37%, as low-quality environment background became the drawback of constant economic growth.
Key words:  Green Total Factor Productivity  Data Envelopment Analysis  ‘lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets’