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香溪河流域水生态系统健康评价
孙徐阳, 李卫明, 粟一帆, 李金京, 胡威
三峡大学水利与环境学院
摘要:
随着人们环境保护意识的增强,河湖生态保护与修复成为社会关注的热点问题,科学的生态健康诊断则是有效进行河湖治理的前提。香溪河作为三峡水库典型支流,探究其水生态系统健康对于长江生态保护具有十分重要的意义。通过收集整理香溪河干支流的生物与生境数据,构建了涵盖水环境、水生生物、物理栖息地三方面共16项指标的水生态系统健康评价指标体系,综合运用专家判断法和熵权法确定评价因子权重,采用河流健康指数(RHI)表征香溪河流域水生态系统健康状况。结果表明:①2017年三峡水库蓄水期香溪河流域水生态系统整体健康水平为良好,优和良等级占比分别为12.5%和79.2%。②健康状况呈现出支流好于干流、非回水区好于回水区的空间分布特点,具体表现为支流南阳河>支流古夫河>支流高岚河>香溪河干流。干流水环境问题相对突出,而支流的河流连通性相对较差。③库湾健康状况的年内变化特征为冬季最好,春秋季次之,夏季最差。研究显示,该评价体系能准确评估香溪河流域水生态健康状况,同时需重视三峡水库支流库湾的水环境治理。
关键词:  香溪河  水生态系统  健康评价  指标体系  栖息地
DOI:
分类号:X82
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
Health Assessment of Aquatic Ecosystem in the Xiangxi River Basin, China
李卫明, SU Yifan, LI Jinjing, HU Wei
College of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering,China Three Gorges University
Abstract:
With the enhancement of people's awareness of environmental protection, ecological protection and restoration of rivers and lakes has become a hot issue in society, and scientific ecological health diagnosis is the prerequisite for effective governance. Xiangxi River is a typical tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir;accordingly, it is of vital importance to explore its aquatic ecological health status, concerning the ecology of the Yangtze River. By means of collecting and organizing biotic and habitat data of the mainstream and tributaries of Xiangxi River, an aquatic ecosystem health evaluation index system was established in this paper, consisting of a total of 16 indicators which are divided into three aspects: water environment, aquatic organisms, and physical habitats. The expert judgment method and entropy method were used to determine the weights of evaluation factors, and River health index (RHI) was constructed to characterize the aquatic ecological status in the Xiangxi River Basin. The results shows that the overall health level of the aquatic ecosystem in the Xiangxi River Basin during the impoundment period of the Three Gorges Reservoir in 2017 was good, with excellent and good samples accounting for 12.5% and 79.2%, respectively. The spatial distribution of health level in the Xiangxi River basin shows a law that tributaries are healthier than the mainstream and non-backwater areas are healthier compared to the backwater areas. The specific performance is as follows: Nanyang River> Gufu River> Gaolan River> Xiangxi River. The water environment problem of the mainstream is relatively prominent, while the river connectivity of the tributaries is relatively poor. During the whole year, there exists an feature in the switch of Xiangxi Bay’s health, whose score is highest in winter, followed by autumn, spring, and summer. The research suggests that the evaluation system can be applied to assessing accurately the health status of the aquatic ecosystem in the Xiangxi River Basin and that there is much necessity to keep focused on the water environment treatment of the bays of the Three Gorges Reservoir.
Key words:  Xiangxi River  aquatic ecosystem  health assessment  index system  habitat