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流体剪切与超声空化破解剩余污泥的参数优化
谢元华, 相阳, 梁启煜, 李现瑾, 韩进, 由美雁, 朱彤
东北大学机械工程与自动化学院, 辽宁 沈阳 110819
摘要:
为提高剩余污泥的破解效果并降低能耗,采用FS (fluid shear,流体剪切)、UC (ultrasonic cavitation,超声空化)、FS和UC联合工艺(FS-UC,UC-FS)破解剩余污泥,并应用单因素试验结合响应面法对联合工艺进行优化.结果表明:FS对剩余污泥破解效果一般,只在开始阶段具有较好效果,随作用时间延长,破解效果未有显著提高甚至下降.UC对剩余污泥破解效果明显,随作用时间延长,破解效果显著提升,但能耗也随之增大,EDR (energy disintegration ratio,效能比)明显下降.相同作用时间下,UC破解效果优于FS破解效果,UC破解剩余污泥的DDCOD(degree of disintegration,破解率)与EDR均明显高于FS方法.单因素试验得出的较优FS作用时间范围为2~8 min,较优UC作用时间范围为5~15 min.响应面法试验结果显示,联合工艺的剩余污泥破解效果和能量利用率均优于单一方法,联合工艺中FS-UC工艺的破解效果优于UC-FS工艺.FS-UC工艺的最佳参数:FS处理5.6 min再UC处理15.0 min,该条件下剩余污泥实际DDCOD为50.8%,EDR为26.8%.UC-FS工艺的最佳参数:先UC作用15.0 min再FS作用7.8 min,该条件下剩余污泥实际DDCOD为36.5%,EDR为17.1%.研究显示,以DDCOD和EDR为指标,4种工艺的高效性顺序为FS-UC > UC-FS > UC > FS,其中FS-UC工艺具有能耗低、破解效率高的特点,是4种工艺中剩余污泥破解效果最好的一种工艺.
关键词:  废物处理  优化设计  降解  流体剪切  超声空化  剩余污泥
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.03.20
分类号:X703;X705
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51178089);教育部中央高校基本科研业务费项目(N150304001,N140306001)
Parameter Optimization in Excess Sludge Disintegration by Fluid Shear and Ultrasonic Cavitation
XIE Yuanhua, XIANG Yang, LIANG Qiyu, LI Xianjin, HAN Jin, YOU Meiyan, ZHU Tong
School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
Abstract:
To improve the excess sludge disintegration effect and reduce its energy consumption, Fluid Shear (FS), Ultrasonic Cavitation (UC) and combined FS and UC (FS-UC, UC-FS) processes were performed to disintegrate excess sludge. Based on the single factor experiment results, response surface methodology was used to optimize the operation parameters of combined FS-UC and UC-FS processes. The results showed that FS had modest effects on excess sludge disintegration. Relatively better effects only occurred in the initial disintegration stage. The FS disintegration effect did not improve obviously and even decreased with time. The UC disintegration effect was distinct, increasing significantly with time, accompanied with obvious energy consumption increase and Energy Disintegration Ratio (EDR) decrease. Within the same treatment time, the UC disintegration effect was superior to that of the FS process. The Degree of Disintegration (DDCOD) and EDR of UC process were clearly higher than those of FS process. FS disintegration time of 2-8 min and UC disintegration time of 5-15 min were concluded from the single factor experiments and were used for the response surface experiments. The response surface experiment results proved that the combined process had better disintegration effect and higher energy efficiency than the single process. FS-UC had an advantage over UC-FS between the two combined processes. The optimal FS-UC parameters were FS treatment of 5.6 min, followed by UC treatment of 15.0 min, which achieved DDCOD of 50.8% and EDR of 26.8% in actual excess sludge disintegration. The optimal UC-FS parameters were UC treatment of 15.0 min, followed by FS treatment of 7.8 min, which achieved DDCOD of 36.5% and EDR of 17.1% in actual excess sludge disintegration. With the target of DDCOD and EDR, the efficiency order of the four processes was FS-UC > UC-FS > UC > FS. FS-UC process, with low energy consumption and high disintegration degree, is a new method in the excess sludge disintegration field.
Key words:  waste treatment  optimal design  degradation  fluid shear  ultrasonic cavitation  excess sludge