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天津市常用绿化树种挥发性有机物排放潜力估算
张倩, 李洪远, 贺梦璇, 吕铃钥, 杨佳楠
南开大学环境科学与工程学院, 天津 300350
摘要:
BVOCs(植被释放的挥发性有机物)对PM2.5等大气颗粒物的形成有重要贡献,树种BVOCs排放潜力的研究有助于城市绿化树种的科学选择.对天津市城市绿地常见绿化树种BVOCs样品进行采集与鉴定,基于Guenther提出的模型估算了天津市32种常见绿化树种BVOCs的排放量,并对估算过程中的不确定性因素进行分析.结果表明:构树、毛白杨、旱柳和绦柳的BVOCs排放量(以C计)最高,分别为2 179.438、2 147.394、2 116.537、2 045.722 g/(株·a).从科属的角度来看,杨柳科植物BVOCs排放量最高,豆科、桑科和松科BVOCs排放量位居其次.采用聚类分析方法将32种绿化树种的异戊二烯、单萜烯排放潜力进行分类,其中毛白杨、构树、旱柳和绦柳属于高排放异戊二烯的树种;油松和苹果属于高排放单萜烯的树种.从科属水平而言,豆科和杨柳科植物具有较强的异戊二烯排放潜力.松科和部分蔷薇科的乔木具有较强的单萜烯排放潜力.从叶片类型的角度上,阔叶树主要以排放异戊二烯为主,针叶树主要以排放单萜烯为主,且异戊二烯的排放潜力要大于单萜烯的排放潜力.植物OVOCs(其他VOCs)排放潜力与异戊二烯和单萜烯的排放潜力相比显著较弱.天津市外来树种与本地树种BVOCs排放潜力无显著性差异(P>0.05).研究显示,天津市常用绿化树种的单株排放潜力差异明显,因此可优选臭椿、洋白蜡和紫叶李等排放潜力相对较低的树种用作城市绿化.
关键词:  挥发性有机物  绿化树种  异戊二烯  单萜烯  排放潜力
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.03.72
分类号:X948
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No.31370700)
Estimation of Volatile Organic Compounds Emission from Frequently-Used Greening Tree Species in Tianjin City
ZHANG Qian, LI Hongyuan, HE Mengxuan, LÜ Lingyue, YANG Jianan
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China
Abstract:
Biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions (BVOCs) have a significant contribution to the formation of atmospheric particulates such as PM2.5, and studying BVOCs emission potential ability of tree species is conducive to the scientific selection of urban greening tree species. The BVOCs samples of 32 frequently-used trees in Tianjin city's urban green space were collected and tested. The BVOCs emissions amounts were estimated based on the model proposed by Guenther, and then the uncertain factors were analyzed. The results showed that Broussonetia papyrifera, Populus tomentosa, Salix matsudana and Salix matsudana f. pendula had higher BVOCs emission potential ability which were 2179.438, 2147.394, 2116.537, 2045.722 g/(tree·a) (calculated on carbon) respectively. For plant families, Salicaceae had the most BVOCs emissions amount, and followed by Leguminosae, Moraceae and Pinaceae. Isoprene and monoterpene emission potential ability of 32 tree species were classified by clustering analysis. B. papyrifera, P. tomentosa, S. matsudana and S. matsudana f. pendula were categorized as high isoprene emitters. Pinus tabulaeformis and Malus pumila were high monoterpene emitters. On the plant family level, Leguminosae and Salicaceae exhibited the higher isoprene emission potential. Meanwhile, Pinaceae and some Rosaceae tree species had the higher monoterpene emission ability. From the perspective of leaves type, broad-leaved trees mainly released isoprenes and needle-leaved trees mainly released monoterpenes. Moreover, the isoprene emission potential ability on broad-leaved tree was greater than monoterpenes on needle-leaved tree generally. Compared with isoprenes and monoterpenes, OVOCs emission potential was weaker obviously. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the emission potential of BVOCs between exotic species and native species in Tianjin City (P>0.05). The study had shown that there was significant difference in single plant emission potential ability of frequently-used greening trees in Tianjin City. Therefore, some species with relatively low emission potential ability, such as Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Prunus cerasifera f. atropurpurea, can be preferably selected for urban greening.
Key words:  volatile organic compounds  greening tree species  isoprenes  isoprenre  monoterpense  emission potential ability