引用本文:蔡 靳,闫振广,何 丽,等.水质基准两栖类受试生物筛选[J].环境科学研究,2014,27(4):349-355.
CAI Jin,YAN Zhen-guang,HE Li,et al.Screening of Native Amphibians for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2014,27(4):349-355.]
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水质基准两栖类受试生物筛选
蔡 靳, 闫振广, 何 丽, 王伟莉, 刘征涛
中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 国家环境保护化学品生态效应与风险评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
摘要:
两栖动物是水生生态系统的重要生物群落,是水生生物基准的重要保护对象. 参照美国水生生物基准技术指南,搜集、筛选了12种本土代表性两栖动物的生物毒性数据,通过毒性数据分析,筛选出对两栖动物毒性最大的污染物,主要包括农药、重金属和杀虫剂三大类,以及4属基准研究受试生物. 在4属(5种)受试生物中,黑眶蟾蜍对硝酸银的累积概率为15%,六趾蛙对马拉硫磷的累积概率为1%,牛蛙对五氯酚的累积概率为8%,棘胸蛙对丙溴磷的累积概率为27%,虎纹蛙对硫丹的累积概率为29%. 结果表明:蛙属(六趾蛙)对农药、蛙属(牛蛙)对杀虫剂、蟾蜍属(黑框蟾蜍)对重金属均为敏感物种,虎纹蛙属(虎纹蛙)对农药、棘蛙属(棘胸蛙)对杀虫剂均为较敏感物种. 这4属(5种)两栖动物可以作为相关污染物的水质基准研究的受试物种.
关键词:  两栖动物  水生生物基准  受试生物  物种敏感度分布  污染物
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基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07501-003-06);中国环境科学研究院改革启动经费专项(2011GQ-02)
Screening of Native Amphibians for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria
CAI Jin, YAN Zhen-guang, HE Li, WANG Wei-li, LIU Zheng-tao
State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Ecological Effects and Risk Assessment of Chemicals, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
Amphibians are important biological community in aquatic ecosystems, and are one of the important protected objects of aquatic life criteria. The toxicity data of twelve representative freshwater amphibians were collected and screened according to the guidelines of the US for deriving water quality criteria. The analysis results showed that there were three categories of pollutants, which were the most toxic to amphibians, including pesticides, heavy metals and insecticides. Four genuses for development for water quality criteria were obtained. The calculated results of the cumulative probability showed that the Bufo melanostictu to silver nitrate was 15%, Rana hexadactyla to malathion was 1%, R. catesbeiana to chlorophenasicacid was 8%,Paa spinosa to phosphorothioic acid was 27%, and Hoplobatrachus tigerinus to endosulfan was 29%. The Rana (R. hexadactyla) to pesticide, Rana (R. catesbeiana) to insecticide and Bufo (B. melanostictu)to heavy metals were sensitive, respectively. The Hoplobatrachus (H. tigerinus) to pesticide and Paa (P. spinosa) to insecticide were relatively sensitive, respectively. The five amphibian species can be used as the test organisms for development of water quality criteria.
Key words:  amphibian  aquatic life criteria  test organisms  species sensitivity distribution  pollutants